Periostitis, depending on the nature of the inflammatory process, is divided into acute and chronic. Acute periostitis, in turn, is also subdivided into several forms.
Periostitis, or simply flux is an inflammation of the periosteum.
It occurs as a complication of disease of the periodontium, periodontal or teeth if treatment is not available or conducted in bad faith, then the inflammatory process of periodontal slit penetrates the periosteum.
Acute serous periostitis
The abscess develops within 1-3 days. It manifests itself in the form of swelling of the soft tissues of the face, the flux is near the sick tooth. Most often, this abscess is the result of a fracture or injury, because of what it is called traumatic periostitis. The inflammatory process in acute serous periostitis subsides quickly, often without outside interference.
Acute purulent periostitis
This periostitis is characteristic of a strong, pulsating pain extending to the temple, the ear and the eye. The mucosa swells and turns red temperature rises. The pus gradually accumulates and increases the intensity of symptoms. Such periostitis may occur for any reason.
Acute diffuse periostitis
Characterized by severe pain and General intoxication of the body. In humans, increased temperature, there is a weakness in the whole body, lost appetite. The inflammatory process is very common.
This form of the disease is much rarer than acute periostitis. Most often it develops on the lower jaw. Chronic periostitis is easy to learn for dense edema, which does not change facial features. In the field of flux of slightly thickened bone, next increased lymph nodes. Chronic periostitis occurs is hidden for several months or years, sometimes sharpening and taking the symptoms of the acute form.
Periostitis is a common enough problem, and the reasons for its occurrence are many.
The main reason is the accumulation of the cavity in the tooth or under the gum of the patient particles of putrid decay, which remain in the mouth after eating. The result is inflammation, pus appears, and the lesion is localized in the region of the periosteum.
This may occur for the following reasons:
- Due to the injury of the tooth or the tissue around it – this can cause inflammation of the bone or cause internal bruising;
- Hard running caries, developed into pulpitis or periodontitis, when bacteria strike the tooth root and the tissue surrounding it;
- Poor treatment of caries or pulpitisor tooth extraction in General dental intervention that brought the infection to the periosteum;
- The inflamed periodontal pocket. The pockets themselves are formed only in the inflammation of the gums, and they gradually filled with remnants of food and plaque, which eventually leads to inflammation;
- Inadequate oral hygiene;
- Abrasions or sore throat;
- Extensive infectious diseases, because of which the infection enters the bone through the blood or lymph.
In the first stage of flux ulcer, usually absent, and treatment is possible without surgery. The patient is prescribed painkillers and anti-inflammatory antibiotics, but their use is not recommended – better to be treated under the supervision of a specialist.
Also, the doctor makes the decision to save or extract the tooth.
- Acute severe pain in the region of the tooth, passing on the neck and the head;
- Strong swelling of the cheeks;
- Pain when pressure on the problematic tooth;
- Redness and swelling of the lower eyelid, nose, lip;
- Redness of the gum near the problem tooth;
- Temperature rise;
- General weakness.
Interesting fact. The elderly and children the symptoms are often more mild – their immune system is not as strong, and the body resists infection is not as intense as in adults.
- The first stage is pain during a meal in a tooth;
- The second stage – the appearance of the gums around the problem tooth redness and then swelling. If treatment is not initiated, the swelling develops into an abscess;
- The third stage – severe swelling of the cheeks, lips and chin from the emergence of flux;
- The fourth stage – sudden onset of fever, throbbing pain radiating to the ears and temples.
All this can happen literally in a few days. If medical assistance is not, then the abscess may break and the symptoms will disappear, but inflammation in the tooth and bone will continue and the flux will appear again. So the treatment of this disease is necessary.
If before the formation of the abscess will not go to the doctor, then later to treat the abscess will need surgical method.
Statistics of acute periostitis
Acute periostitis from various scientists collected a lot of statistics. This disease occurs at 5.2-5.4% of cases from all cases in dentistry, while among those treated on the inpatient treatment of the abscess is diagnosed in 20-23% of patients. The acute form among all cases of periostitis occurs in 94% of cases.
Periostitis of the mandible occurs more frequently at 58.9 percent of cases, usually affects the vestibular surface of the jaw. Especially the periostitis affected men aged 16 to 40 years.
Among the acute forms of suppurative periostitis is most common – it occurs in 63% of cases. Less common serous, and less – diffuse.
Acute odontogenic periostitis is preceded by the following diseases:
- 73,3% of cases, exacerbation of chronic forms of periodontitis;
- 18,3% alveolate;
- 5% – problems with the eruption of wisdom teeth;
- 1,7% of radicular cysts of the jaws;
- And 1.7% traumatic surgery tooth extraction.
In 92% of patients with acute abscess, the body temperature rises. Of these 92% have a 20% increase to 37-37,5 degrees, from 28% to 38 degrees and 44% – above 38 degrees.
To treat the abscess with antibiotics, experts strongly recommend. To choose the right antibiotic can only the dentist, after assessing the patient’s condition of the tooth and the degree of development of inflammation.
Diagnosis of periostitis
To establish the diagnosis of flux is not very difficult – this is normally a simple inspection of the patient, although they may require x-rays and various laboratory tests to determine the stage and extent of spread of the inflammatory process.
In the diagnosis of periostitis, it is important to distinguish it from:
- Acute periodontitis. In periodontitis, the swelling is localized strictly around the causative tooth. When the abscess is it may grab adjacent teeth;
- Various abscesses, lymphadenitis and abscesses. All these diseases are characterized by dense formations in the soft tissues of the neck and face, the skin over which is red and shiny. When abscess same fabric softening occurs in the lining of the fluctuation, some of the face swell without tension of the tissues and redness;
- Acute sialadenitis. When sialadenitis the patient’s teeth healthy, and salivary glands secreted a purulent exudate. When the abscess is necessarily affected at least one tooth, and secretions from the salivary glands is not observed;
- Acute osteomyelitis. Osteomyelitis of the alveolar process is thickened not with one but with both sides also noted a very strong weakness, chills, fever, high temperature and headaches.
Treatment in the early stages
In the first stage of flux ulcer, usually absent, and treatment is possible without surgery. The patient is prescribed painkillers and anti-inflammatory antibiotics, but their use is not recommended – better to be treated under the supervision of a specialist. Also, the doctor makes the decision to save or extract the tooth. Unfortunately, at this stage many do not pay attention to the abscess, and he quickly develops further.
If before the formation of the abscess will not go to the doctor, then later to treat the abscess will need surgical method.
In the formation of abscess treatment of abscess is as follows:
- Pain relief;
- Implementation near the sick tooth through a small incision. Cut the gums and, if necessary, bone tissue, and the pus be discharged to the outside;
- After the pus came out, inflamed area carefully processed;
- To continue the outflow of pus, incision drainage stacks. It is necessary that prior to the full release of pus hearth flux is not healed;
- Simultaneously, the patient is prescribed antibiotics to relieve inflammation;
- After the pus drained completely, the dentist removes the drainage and taken for restoration of bone tissue. Gums when it heals itself, or if the interference was strong, sutured;
- If the tooth is badly damaged, then it is removed. If the dentist determines that he can be saved, the appropriate treatment.
To treat the flux can only be in a dentist’s office, under the strict supervision of a specialist and with the necessary antiseptic and anesthetic drugs. An independent autopsy of flux can lead to more serious infection.
If the flux will not be cured in time, the pus will penetrate into the intermuscular space and facial departments, down to the neck and penetrate to the internal organs. In the end, formed a phlegmon – diffuse purulent inflammation, is extremely dangerous to human life.
The main reason is the accumulation of the cavity in the tooth or under the gum of the patient particles of putrid decay that remain in the mouth after eating. The result is inflammation, pus appears, and the lesion is localized in the region of the periosteum.
Treatment with antibiotics
To treat the abscess with antibiotics, experts strongly recommend. To choose the right antibiotic can only the dentist, after assessing the patient’s condition of the tooth and the degree of development of inflammation. All antibiotics are chosen on an individual basis, and it’s in the complex are appointed by other anti-inflammatory and pain medications, as well as a means of reducing the harmful effects of antibiotics on the internal organs. So even if you have treated flux and know which antibiotics need to drink, you still should seek the advice of a physician.
The doctor usually prescribes antibiotics at the earliest stage of abscess, when the abscess is still missing. In this case, most likely, will be able to do without surgical interference, because the antibiotics themselves will reduce inflammation.
If the flux has moved into the purulent form, without surgery can not do. However, antibiotics are useful here – after removal of the abscess, the doctor will prescribe a course of medication to relieve pain and inflammation, and among them there are also antibiotics.
When the abscess is most often prescribed:
Dosage appoint a dentist, depending on the General health of the patient and severity of periostitis.
Treatment of periostitis at home
Self-treatment the abscess is what to do exactly should not be. Tooth can not be cured neither painkillers nor rinsing with baking soda or self-use of antibiotics. You might be able to remove the inflammation, but the pathological processes in the tooth will continue, and in the end, the flux appears again, or the infection is generally spread deeper into the body and lead to irreparable consequences. In addition, self-treatment you can only do harm. All folk remedies from the flux can only temporarily relieve pain – they are reasonable to use if you are unable to visit a doctor right now. But the best option would be as soon as possible to schedule an appointment.
So as not to worsen your condition, experts recommend to observe a number of rules upon detection of symptoms of periostitis:
- In any case, do not make yourself a hot compress. Heat only accelerates the spread of pus that can cause serious complications;
- Never take antibiotics without a doctor’s prescription;
- Do not drink pain least three hours before a visit to the dentist – otherwise you might complicate the diagnosis;
- After you in the clinic will cut the flux, do not take for pain and churning temperature aspirin – it can cause bleeding.
Remember that periostitis is insidious and dangerous disease. Dealing with it can only be a dentist, and without proper treatment it can provoke the spread of pus throughout the body and cause abnormalities in the internal organs. At the first sign of the abscess go to the doctor and may be able to treat without surgery, only medication.
Treatment of periodontitis folk remedies
At a very early stage in addition to antibiotics, you can use folk remedies:
- Mix salt and soda with water for rinsing;
- Mouthwash alcohol tincture of teaspoon of calendula, dissolved in a glass of water;
- Infusion of lemon balm;
- Infusion of sage and yellow;
- A mixture of infusion of sage and green tea.
- A decoction of oak bark, nettle leaves, sage leaves and calamus root. All the components you need to take 10 grams, mix, pour into a container, pour one liter of boiling water and infuse for two hours. Then drain the solution and rinse your mouth every two hours;
- “Medical cigarettes”. For their manufacture assemble and zaschite cat’s paw, finely chop it and add tissue paper, rolled into a tube in the shape of a cigarette. This “cigarette” should be allowed to smoke the patient flux. In light smoke to inhale don’t need them enough to fill the oral cavity. This unusual tool is well relieves pain and inflammation;
- You can rinse your mouth with a solution of chlorophyllide, a tablespoon of which should be diluted in a glass of warm water. This solution is well disinfects.
- Take a teaspoon of sugar, black pepper and salt, add to the mix a tablespoon of vinegar, heat it, dilute with a glass of warm water and rinse your mouth. The facility has an unpleasant taste, but it helps to cope with the flux;
- In a liter of boiling water boil 60 grams of birch buds and the same quantity of Angelica, periwinkle and peppermint. Rinse your mouth with this decoction six times a day;
- In severe pain the whole day carefully chew propolis, being careful not to aggravate a sore tooth. Also inflammation good 5% extract of propolis on alcohol – she needs to lubricate the gums until the pain disappears;
- Pour a glass of boiling water 20 grams of the herb Rue and steep for 20 minutes and then use to rinse the mouth;
- 20 grams of dried and powdered calamus root pour 0.5 liters of boiling water, and every day, after eating rinse your mouth with hot medium;
- Apply flux to the welded in for two minutes and then cooled cabbage leaf;
- Squeeze out onion juice, soak it in Luke cotton swab and apply it to the place of formation of the flux. Onion is an excellent natural antibiotic;
- With very strong pain make packs of yellow and sage. For this brew collecting in the boiling water, moisten with broth a bandage and apply it to the aching tooth. The main thing is to chill the compress, or the spread of pus to accelerate;
- Well relieve the pain, a compress of soda. To create them in the center of the fleece of the bandage or put a teaspoon of baking soda, wrap her inside, wet the swab with warm water and place between the cheek and gum. To keep the poultice should be two to three hours;
- Can be applied to the aching tooth tablet “Dimedrol”, but the saliva in this case it will be impossible to swallow;
- Pain well removed lidocainum compress.
Remember that all these tools – only addition to the basic therapy, and in any case will not be able to replace it.
Periostitis in children – tips for parents
Dental abscess in children not an uncommon phenomenon, and often parents are lost and do not know what to do. Many mothers want to get rid of the abscess rinse, and not subjecting children to the stress of going to the doctor. But more experienced parents on the Internet forums suggest in any case not to delay, and to lead a toddler to the dentist as soon as possible – the flux can easily to impress the rudiments of the permanent teeth and cause intense inflammation, and no rinsing will not help.
The flux at the child parents often the question arises – to try to cure gently, keeping a baby tooth or pull it. Actually experienced moms suggest in the case of a flux to fight for tooth – when trying to eliminate the inflammation in the periosteum can damage the permanent rudiment, and for the child to be stress-gum pop – it’s easier to just pull out the problematic tooth.
Prescribed antibiotics parents on the forums also suggest to drink so baby will be much easier to move the inflammation, and, perhaps, it will drop itself on the background of medication, and cutting do not have to.
Prevention of abscess
The main cause of periostitis is neglect of the teeth, lack of hygiene and carious processes.
So to avoid the development of flux, it is necessary to observe following rules:
- Brush your teeth twice a day. Do not use too hard toothbrush, so as not to hurt the enamel and gums. After each meal rinse your mouth with water or a special mouthwash;
- Regularly (preferably once or twice a year) happens at the dentist for a checkup,so he could have time to notice the decay. Also during these examinations will be useful to do a professional oral hygiene to clean the teeth from the stone;
- Eat more fruits and vegetables, to strengthen gums and tooth enamel. But the amount of sweet try to limit.