Continuously deteriorating environmental situation in the world, chemical additives in food, polluted air and water, and other hazards have led to increasing prevalence of allergic pathologies in humans. Particularly affected category of patients – children. Among the many problems caused by hypersensitivity, allergic conjunctivitis stands out. More likely to suffer from it kids. In this age range, pediatricians have noted the greatest number of severe forms of this disease.
For children with allergic conjunctivitis nature:
- Lacrimation, or conversely, excessive dryness of mucous membranes of eyes and cornea.
- Burning pain resembling the sensation as from sand.
- Itching, swelling and redness.
- Disorders of appetite, of sleep, poor General condition.
- Tearfulness and moodiness.
The most effective in healing this disease are medicines in tablets, syrups, drops and ointments.
For full assistance required diagnosis from a pediatric ophthalmologist, an allergist.
Only these experts are selected individual therapy. Self-treatment is not recommended.
An overview of the main groups of drugs used in the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis in children
Full healing of this disease should take into account all links of the pathological problems. So the doctor prescribes a treatment plan based on the type of ailment, its form, stage, condition of the little patients and other details.
All groups of pharmaceuticals needed for treatment of a pathology are divided into two: General and local effects. Very often pediatricians combine the simultaneous appointment of the same class of drugs. For example, the use of antibiotics and for use in localization of the disease process.
For relief of minor variants of the disease is quite enough means of outdoor exposure. Medium and heavy forms require the simultaneous reception of both local and General means.
Successful treatment requires adherence to several important rules:
- To use medications only with a valid expiration date. After opening drops, ointment bases, they must be used or disposed of otherwise during storage lose their medicinal properties.
- If the process affects only one eye at appointment drops and ointments require a simultaneous impact on the second.
- When backfilling and applying ointment you should not touch the tissues of the eye dropper or ointment tube, it can cause microtrauma and infectious complication.
- In case of severe reactions of the baby (crying, screaming, fighting, zamurovannye) drops and ointment should be applied between the eyelids from the nose (in conjunctival SAC). The child will begin to blink and the drug will still be placed on the cornea and under the eyelids.
- If contaminated secretions of the eyelids must be carefully rinsed with antiseptics before the procedure.
- Treatment should continue for 2-3 days after disappearance of all manifestations of the disease.
The substances contained in these drugs well eliminate the swelling, burning and itching, reduce excessive tearing. The mechanism of their action quite complicated and we consider it in detail will not.
Newborns and babies up to a month should refrain from the appointment of this group of drugs, because of possible side effects.
In pediatric practice used:
- Suprastin. In addition to the main, it gives a soothing and soft sedative effect.
- When they reach the age of 6 months is recommended Zyrtec.
- Six months later – Erius and loratadine.
These drugs – and activities the kids are in the form of medicinal syrups. Tablet form makes sense to apply no earlier than the age of 4-5 years.
It is important
We don’t show the dose because they are appointed strictly individually doctor.
For local impact:
- Patanol. Has a very good effect, but it should not be used earlier than 3 years of age. At 1 drop twice daily after shaking the bottle into the conjunctival SAC.
- Azelastine (Allergodil). Administered to children after 4 years in the case of seasonal allergies. Most often pediatric ophthalmologists recommend that instill 1 drop in each eye morning and evening.
- A good cough medicine. From 2 years of age.
The use of this group of orally or injecting is necessary if allergic conjunctivitis is infectious in nature and manifests itself in different symptoms of the underlying disease. In the case of local infectious problems only drops and ointments with the content of antibacterial substances.
Drugs with antimicrobial properties:
- TOPEX. Solution for instillation of the eye containing the aminoglycoside with a broad antibacterial spectrum. Permitted use by children from 1 year. Dosage, frequency and long-term by agreement with the doctor.
- Floksal. In its composition contains the antibiotic Ofloxacin. These drops are assigned to the youngest patients – newborns. Eyes instilled 4 times a day.
- Chloramphenicol. Given the toxicity of the antibiotic should be used very cautiously, it is better after 2 years.
These drugs complement the effect of the antihistamine group at the expense of more active vasoconstrictive effects (narrowing of the vessels) based on the alpha-adrenomimetic action. Vasoconstriction reduces edema, epiphora suppression, mitigation of inflammation.
It should be remembered that gives them only ophthalmologist for possible adverse reactions.
- Visine. Its therapeutic effect lasts up to 6-8 hours after instillation. Up to 2 years is not appointed.
- Oxymetazoline. Drips and spray for intranasal administration with concomitant rhinitis. Only after 6 years.
Preparations of artificial tears
Fluids containing polymers are harmless to the tissues of the eye. Getting on the mucosa, forming a protective film, which is connected with a tear, acquiring a viscous consistency, and is retained in the cornea up to 30-45 minutes. Therefore, has a protective effect from allergenic substances (keratoplasticheskie properties). Against this background, much softened manifestations of hypersensitivity reactions.
In ophthalmic Pediatrics used:
- Lakrisin (1 drop 2-3 times a day).
- Natural tear.
Stabilizers fat cell membranes
Effective mechanism of this group of drugs based on the blockade of inflammatory mediators secreted by mast cells. The stabilizers are long, but their main effect is a few days. Despite its anti-allergic effect can become cause of hypersensitivity reactions (local pain, drowsiness, nausea and vomiting), so their use has its limitations, especially in children.
In medical practice apply to:
- Ketotifen. Tablets and syrup for oral administration. Applied 6 months after birth.
- Lodoxamide. In the form of drops to the eye.
- Lekrolin. For instillation of the eye 4 years.
This drug group has long established itself in ophthalmic therapy of allergic processes. Selenopyrane has anti-inflammatory, relieving swelling and reducing the Allergy effects.
It is important
Children need these drugs in the presence of severe and minor effectiveness of other treatment.
- Dexamethasone. This substance is part of the hormonal eye drops, Dexapos, Maxidex.
- The hydrocortisone. Used medical form – ointment.
Corticosteroids are appointed only by the doctor under constant supervision of the patients ‘ condition. This rigor is necessary because of possible side effects, in particular a sharp increase in intraocular pressure.
Other drug groups
Vitaminsto help speed up the regeneration of damaged corneal, healing of erosive and ulcerative processes.
The combined funds. Combine in one dosage form for several basic actions. Okumetil, Garazon, Kromasil and others. The composition of the drops included components that have anti-Allergy properties, anti-inflammatory, vasoconstrictor, etc.
The emoxipin (after the operation). The combined effect of drugs strengthens blood vessels of the eye, stabilizes cell membranes, controls the rheological properties of blood, allowing increased clotting, improves oxygen supply to the cells.
Parents of children must not only fulfill all the requirements of the doctor, but to be able to carry out the technically correct procedure for instillation.
How eye drops children
Kids newborn period requires a special pipette with a rounded end. To spoil a kid’s eyes you want to put it on the bed, the head should be held with two hands (need an assistant). Drops for instillation should be body temperature. With this purpose the medicine bottle kept in his own hand for 2-3 minutes.
Prior to manipulation do not forget to wash your hands with soap and water and wipe dry with a clean towel. You should not carry out the procedure with cold hands. Gently apply 2 drops in konyunktivalny bag. Remove the excess with a clean cloth.
Prevention of exacerbations
Always try to maintain cleanliness in the home. Especially good to do daily wet cleaning. Do not let the child was dirty and stained. He needs a daily bath and frequent washing of pens, face.
Be sure to use a personal towel for the baby, be careful not to wipe it off with strangers, even his.
As often as possible and longer walk in the fresh air.
Follow the quality and purity of products. Do not let the abuse chocolate, sodas, sweets. Food should be simple and nutritious.
These simple rules will save the child from potential allergic conjunctivitis, and you from worrying about the state of the baby.
Latin Alexander, doctor, medical commentator