Treatment of diaper rash in children

Children’s skin is very delicate, and frequent contact with moisture and urine, components of the chair, it is prone to irritation and inflammation. In such circumstances, it was not uncommon for problem kids in the neonatal period and early age be diaper rash, it is non-contagious inflammation of the skin caused by irritation, rubbing the diaper or clothing, contact with moisture.

The primary location of the diaper is a natural skin folds and the buttocks, perineum and lower abdomen. In the severity of the rash can vary from a slight redness to the formation of extensive oozing, erosive surfaces and cracks of the epidermis. A diagnosis can put a pediatrician or pediatric dermatologist for a typical picture of the lesions, and it is important to start treatment from the first symptoms to start the process, and not wait until complications in the form of joining a secondary infection.

The prevalence of the problem

At least once during the period of early childhood every child suffers from diaper rash, and this is due to the inexperience of parents and the feature of the skin. Add here constantly elevated temperature in the diaper area, and skin moisture, and often disregard basic rules of hygiene.

Usually mild diaper rash with the full care run for several days without medication, with more severe problems may need the help of a doctor.

Diaper rash is typical for newborns and children up to about year.

Features of baby skin

At an early age due to the lack of control over shipments of natural leather is often in contact with children’s urine and faeces, which are relatively liquid and contain active enzymes. In addition, children’s skin produces sweat and sebum and also prone to mechanical irritation and damage due to friction and moisture. The epidermis of the infants is very thin, the cells are stacked loosely and they are easily permeable to pathogenic germs. Due to this the skin highly sensitive to infection, easily injured by rough influences, prone to maceration (soaking).

On a background of diaper rash the skin can easily become infected, and due to the weakness of local immunity, imperfections of structure and insufficient hydro-lipid protective film on the surface, the formation of pyoderma and more dangerous complications.

Causes of diaper rash in a child

The basis of the formation of defects is excess moisture in the groin area or in the crease area. If we talk about the area of the perineum, prolonged contact with the components of urine or stool may occur redness and swelling.

The basic ingredients that act as irritants is urinary salts, and the presence of urea and ammonia, which is formed by its decomposition in air. No less negative impact on the skin of feces enzymes, especially protease and lipase, destroying delicate skin and the lipid layer.

Especially difficult is the situation in the presence of diarrhea, if the stool pH becomes acidic, then even a short stay in soiled diapers or diaper threatens to the formation of diaper rash on the skin.

Contribute to the formation of diaper rash infrequent change of diapers, especially after defecation, and when a bad promotivni skin folds from moisture after bathing or cleaning. Dangerous also perekachivanie child when he sweats and the moisture is accumulated in the folds if around crumbs high temperature.

Diaper rash can develop if the skin constantly rubs against clothing or folds between them, about the diapers or the edges of the diapers. Therefore, the preferred localization of these lesions is the area where the skin often wet or prone to rubbing is the femoral and inguinal folds, the lower abdomen or armpit, sometimes behind the ear and neck.

Provocateurs of diaper rash and related factors

Often provocateurs or contributing factors to diaper rash, are the new dishes and foods in the infant diet, antibiotics or changes in diet of nursing mothers, treatment. Also the special role played by the peculiarities of the baby – often occurs in light-skinned children and with irritable, sensitive skin, with blood vessels located close to the skin.

Diaper rash often occurs in infants with obesity or overweight due to the increase in the number of folds, more sweating and peculiarities of metabolism, the Allergy and babies with a violation of intestinal dysbiosis. Often diaper rash is formed on the background of acute intestinal infections, or metabolic nephropathy (skin irritate the urinary salts), in the presence of lactase deficiency, or diathesis (more correct to call them anomalies of the Constitution). Also risk to meet more often with diaper rash, children with prematurity or early translated into the mixture for feeding.

Particular care as risk factors

Often as a provoking factors is the improper wearing diapers, serious mistakes of the parents in their application, as though it may sound paradoxical. A good nappy is designed to absorb fluid and protect skin from moisture, and it refers to the means of preventing diaper rash. But if you wear these diapers for a long time, they will not be able indefinitely to absorb moisture, starting to get wet and RUB.

Therefore, in infants, the diaper change is done every 2-3 hours or immediately after defecation, the kids are older – every 3-4 hours or after bowel movement.

Often, a problem of diaper rash become improper cleaning or lack of them when changing a diaper.

After each dressing, it is important to rinse the skin under running water, and if the baby poops – with soap and water, washing thoroughly all skin folds. You then wiped dry all skin folds and give the skin to dry and only then put on a dry new diaper.

Outside the home you need to use a wet and dry baby wipes to take care of my skin. Before use of the diaper is to use a special diaper cream or powder, it will reduce the risk of skin contact with moisture and irritation from her.

Consider also the effects of friction wear or edges of the diaper to the skin, wearing narrow pants. Often problems occur in the skin folds RUB against one another, contact with sutures or elastic bands around the legs of diapers. It is important in such a situation, prefer clothes made of soft fabrics and cotton with the seams outside, and also strictly on the size to pick up the diaper, spreading the clip when putting them on.

Problems in health as causes of diaper rash

Diaper rash can occur due to allergic reactions, if parents in the care of baby’s skin is zealous beyond measure. So, the excessive use of various powders and creams, lotions, foams for washing, bathing and moisturizing, especially flavors and fragrances, dyes and additives face an even greater skin irritation and Allergy.

Makeup should be hypoallergenic and buy only the proven brands to use its basic, no-frills, thick layers and combinations between them.

Food reactions at an early age can also manifest itself persistent diaper rash. Therefore, if perfect care the background of introduction of complementary foods to get diaper rash, you should think about what their cause may be just an allergic reaction.

Overheating of the child with increased sweating is dangerous to the development of diaper rash. This is likely at high temperature in the room, as well as a strong wrapping of the child. It is important to remember that the optimum temperature for the nursery from 18 to 22° C. thus it is necessary to wear it as much as dressed parents, it is not necessary to coddle your baby in warm clothes, cap and swaddle. Slight freezing will cause the baby to actively move, and it will get warm, but overheating is not compensated, this leads to sweating and decrease in immunity, skin irritation and rashes.

Often diaper rash can hide fungal or microbial destruction, looks very similar, to distinguish them can only be a doctor. Their typical symptoms are persistent in nature redness under ideal proper care.

Bacterial and fungal infections. Perhaps the only option when diaper rash needs to be treated with the help of medicine, not to run the disease. But such cases are extremely rare!

Classification of lesions in a child

Pediatricians and pediatric dermatologists in their work are a special classification of diaper rash, which differ for reasons of its occurrence and methods of their treatment.

Thus, the most famous getting:

  • diaper dermatitisoccurring in the form of redness and rashes itchy nature in the area of skin areas that come into contact with wet diapers or a diaper. This is usually the area of the buttocks and thighs, the lower part of the abdomen. The rest of the skin signs of irritation not available.
  • an allergic reaction manifests as an allergic rings is an extensive red rash in the buttocks or the anal area. This kind of diaper rash is formed due to new food or change the brand of diaper.
  • intertriginous lesionsis involvement of skin folds in the groin, on the thighs or between the buttocks, hamstring and neck, in the armpits or the elbow. Skin irritation is formed due to excess accumulation of moisture in the natural folds on the background of sweating and friction with each other.
  • the occurrence of seborrheic eczema are small red spots that can seize the stomach and groin area, genitals, have very clear boundaries. The skin swells, rough to the touch with a greasy surface.
  • candidiasis and diaper rash provoked they are formed in children on the background of existing fungal infection. The main manifestations is a spotty rash with a reddish tinge, which are located in the genital area and skin folds.
  • the development of impetigo is an infected form of diaper rash with lesions of flora such as Staphylococcus and Streptococcus. They usually have the appearance of merging together pustular elements, then forming between a shrivelled crust. Usually they are localized in the buttocks.
Symptoms of diaper rash in infants and diagnostics

Depending on the severity of the inflammatory reaction of the skin of the baby is determined by one of three degrees of severity of the pathology:

  • In milder manifestations, relevant first degree, typical not pronounced redness without oozing, there is no violation of the integrity of the skin.
  • At an average severity of lesions on the skin of the baby is formed bright-red spots with areas of erosions and multiple small cracks of the epidermis. In some cases, can take place also small pustular rash.
  • Severe diaper rash in extreme severity have a form of severe diffuse redness with severe cracking and weeping of the epidermis, peeling its layers, ulceration and extensive erosions of the skin. In this stage of the diaper, the probability of infection of the skin fungal or microbial infection with the development of eczema.

On the background of the average degree diaper rash and occurs severe burning and pain, itchy skin that leads to the constant anxiety of the baby crying, the screaming, worse after defecation or urination. May suffer overall health of the crumbs upset his sleep and appetite, on the accession of secondary infection manifested by fever and toxicity.

Diaper rash are recognized on the basis of visual inspection of the skin and typical locations of the lesions, the complications of the necessary swabs and scrapings on the definition of flora or fungal. Also it is necessary to conduct consultations in the pediatric allergist.

How to treat diaper rash in a child?

If this is the initial and mild lesions of the skin often the treatment is limited to active measures for skin care with the change of hygiene and more meticulous compliance with the rules. In case of redness, which is worried about the baby and his parents, the doctor can recommend ointments with benzalkonium, as well as funds with cetrimide or dexpantenola. Shown bathing in decoctions of herbs – the oak bark, a decoction of chamomile or slightly pink solution of manganese.

Diaper rash second degree treated with the help of certain drugs on the background of all activities needed for the care of the skin. Thus, treatment of the skin mash with drying effects with a base of talc and of zinc, and the application of tannic ointment or applied topically dosed UV irradiation of the skin with air baths. If the skin form pustular rash, it is necessary to process all the formed elements on the skin antiseptics (brilliant green, fukortsin).

In the presence of a child, emerging as one of the manifestations of allergic disease and as a symptom of exudative-catarrhal anomalies Constitution, apply antihistamines and local application of corticosteroid ointments (hydrocortisone).

The most difficult to treat started symptoms of diaper rash in children with an extreme degree of cutaneous lesions. You need to use lotions with silver nitrate or a solution of tannin in a hospital. With the improvement of the status shows the application of zinc paste or sintomitsinovoy emulsion, and the use of antibacterial ointments.

On the background of therapeutic interventions and after their completion required complete care for the skin of the perineum and the area under the diaper.

How to care for baby’s skin

Important cleaning and reception air baths after each diaper change and before you put on the net, it is important to treat all the folds with a special diaper cream. If you suspect an Allergy to the diaper (redness in places most fit), is to change the brand of the product. For the care of children should be used only carefully potiranie and dried, ironed diapers. Washable diapers and all things that come in contact with baby’s skin, you only need a special powder or baby soap, rinse in a special way and ironed after drying.

Treatment of diaper rash folk remedies

On the Internet you can find lots of recipes recommended for the treatment of diaper rash in children. According to doctors, most of them absolutely can not apply on the delicate skin of the perineum, folds and genitalia. Therefore it is necessary to be critical of any advice.

It is strictly forbidden:

  • alcohol and vodka compresses
  • the use of tincture of iodine at any concentration
  • the use of paraffin oil (vaseline) mixed with various herbs
  • tooth powder, all kinds of starch, flour
  • the juices of various plants, lotions with them.

Any decoctions of herbs – the oak bark, a decoction of chamomile and succession, marigold – only with the exception of an Allergy to them and after doctor’s permission. If the child is allergic, such funds can only worsen the situation.

Precautions should be with different types of oils, they leave a film on the skin, giving it dry, which can aggravate soak.

Any infusions and decoctions of herbs that are recommended for ingestion, is also prohibited. They can cause allergies and negative reactions from the body, do not have proven efficacy.

If at-home treatment diaper rash for 4-5 days does not improve or only worsen the situation, it is necessary to address to the doctor.

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