Diabetes – what is this disease? The type 1 and type 2 – causes, symptoms.

This is complicated by and the treatment of diabetes that a person could not know about the illness because the first symptoms of diabetes are manifested in weak form, and he remains unnoticed.

If you have a troubled strange thirst, frequent urination (every 20 minutes), constant fatigue, heaviness in the limbs or impaired vision, we urgently need to see a doctor. You should not explain these disturbing symptoms of other reasons, it is better to consult, not to run the disease. 

In the 21st century diabetes is a hardest problem in healthcare in all countries. A few years ago among people under 40 years rarely met people with diabetes, now every second of this age group suffers from this disease. The diagnosis “diabetes” pose. And millions of people around the world living with this disease but don’t know it yet.

Why more and more young people have diabetes mellitus? Sometimes the cause of diabetes may be a genetic predisposition, but increasingly affects overweight and ecology. The number of children with obesity over the last 20 years has increased twice.

This is caused by changing eating habits and declining physical activity. More and more people do not eat Breakfast and don’t eat homemade food, drink a lot of soft drinks and fast food (hamburgers, hot dogs, chips, etc.). In addition, many schools have reduced the number of physical education classes and even abolished a big change.

What kind of disease is diabetes?

The name of the disease comes from the Greek word meaning “to pass through” and the Latin word meaning “sweet as honey”. This is an accurate description of diabetes, because the patient is not delayed water (through the urinary system, the water quickly goes to the outside), and in the urine contains sugar. This disease is associated with metabolic disorders when the body does not metabolizes sugar in the blood, called glucose.

Diabetes is a serious and incurable disease. If the body does not assimilate glucose, you fail out vital mechanisms, and the threat to human life. The patient does not die directly from diabetes, and dies of complications of diabetes because to treat them very difficult. Such complications include: heart disease and stroke, peripheral arteries and renal failure, disorders of the nervous system. Due to the insufficient blood supply on the soles of the feet in diabetes ulcers, which can lead to amputation of the affected limb. Because diabetes is a very common blindness among adults.

The type 1 diabetes.

10% of patients with diabetes mellitus – type 1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes often ill at a young age: adults up to 30 years, teenagers and children. In type 1 diabetes the immune system produces specific antibodies, and they destroy cells in the pancreas that produce insulin. Therefore, type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease, which is also called immunohematology diabetes, insulin-dependent diabetes. The factors causing an immune reaction: certain medications, viruses and toxic substances. Often type 1 diabetes is hereditary and is particularly common among Caucasians. The main symptoms of type 1 diabetes are: high blood sugar, thirst, excessive appetite or lack of it, weight loss, malaise.

The type 2 diabetes.

90% of patients with diabetes mellitus – type 2 diabetes. If before it was called non-insulin dependent diabetes or the elderly, now this diagnosis to young people and adolescents. And about 40% of patients need insulin therapy. The type 2 diabetes genetic predisposition affected more and more he is exposed to people not of the Caucasian race: Australian aborigines and American Indians. The symptoms of type 2 diabetes: constant thirst, dry mouth, frequent and copious urination, General muscle weakness, fatigue, itchy skin, poor healing of wounds, obesity. Type 2 diabetes progresses slowly and usually associated with obesity.

Glucose in diabetes.

What is the role of glucose in the blood? Glucose is the fuel for all body cells. That glucose entered the cell needs the hormone insulin, which the pancreas secretes. When type 1 diabetes in the blood insulin has no or very very little. While type 2 diabetes insulin is produced, but usually in insufficient quantities. But other than that, the body’s cells becoming resistant to insulin – a condition called insulin resistance. In diabetes 1 and type 2, the result is the same: the cells do not get glucose and it reaches a dangerous level in the blood.

Diabetes and the pancreas.

What role does the pancreas do? Pancreas located behind the stomach and is about the size of a banana. When the pancreas is working normally, it continuously regulates the level of sugar in blood and produces the hormone insulin in the right quantity, in accordance with the rising or falling throughout the day glucose levels.

If the beta cells of the pancreas do not produce enough insulin, then glucose builds up in the blood and causes hyperglycemia. (Low blood sugar called hypoglycemia).

Diabetes and liver.

What is the role of the liver? The liver along with the pancreas regulates the level of sugar in the blood – an excess of glucose it stores in the form of glycogen. When glucose need to use the body, the pancreas instructs the liver, and she back turns glycogen into glucose.

Sugar in diabetes.

Whether sugar causes diabetes? If in large quantity to use sugar, then diabetes is a widespread misconception. According to medical research, diabetes at risk for those who have a genetic predisposition to excess weight, regardless of the amount of sugar. But it is worth remembering that a lot of sugar is bad – it contributes to obesity, and it has few nutrients.

There is also a misconception that those who have diabetes, are very fond of sweets. But in fact they are not more other people have a sweet tooth. When the patient does not follow the diet, he has a strong feeling of hunger but not the craving for sweets. Patients with diabetes can eat sweets, but don’t need to use them more than is provided by their diet.

How are things with fructose (sugar derived from fruits and vegetables)? Conducted research and experiments on animals have shown that consumption of fructose in large amounts in animals, regardless of their weight, develop insulin resistance and even diabetes.

A simplified understanding of diabetes:

To make it easier to understand what this disease is diabetes mellitus, compare the action of the pancreas in a healthy person, a patient with type 1 diabetes and in a patient with type 2 diabetes.


After a meal increases the amount of glucose in the blood, the pancreas reacts to it and produces the right amount of insulin.

Molecules of insulin joining receptors of the muscle cells, open the gates of the cells and receives glucose molecules.

Muscle cells absorb and burn glucose, the glucose level in blood becomes normal.


As the immune system destroys the beta cells in the pancreas that produce insulin, the insulin is not produced.

Molecules of glucose without insulin cannot get into cells.

Glucose accumulates in the blood, damages blood vessels and interferes with important processes in the body.


The pancreas is in most cases produces a small amount of insulin.

But if the receptor cells are not receptive to insulin, the gate of the cell that allow glucose remain closed.

Glucose, as in type 1 diabetes accumulates in the blood, damages blood vessels and interferes with important processes in the body.

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