The word “cartilage” is translated from Greek as “protecting the cartilage”, and the cartilage in our body part of the joints. In medicine this word is called the group of drugs acting on the joint, contributing to the regeneration of cartilage tissue and the normalization of metabolic processes in it.
Assigned to these drugs in various diseases of the joints, injuries and fractures. Chondroprotectors in osteoarthritis are assigned always.
What are chondroprotectors?
Chondroprotectors are biopreparations containing structural elements of natural cartilage. Preparations are made mainly of cartilage and bone tissues of some marine invertebrates and fishes of the salmon family. There are medicines which presents herbal ingredients – extracts from soybeans and avocado.
Treatment with these drugs can be done in two ways:
- Oral administration or ingestion in pill form or in powder form, are appointed for the long term: the effect of the drug usually starts only after 3 months, and the effect is persistent after 6 months.
- The introduction of the drug into the joint or by intramuscular injection provides more rapid therapeutic effect, which is sometimes noticeable after the first injection. The course typically assigned 10-20 intramuscular injection, or 1 to 5 intraarticular, then on the admission of drugs inside.
To enhance the effect simultaneously with chondroprotectors prescribe drugs that improve metabolism and blood circulation.
How do chondroprotectors in osteoarthritis?
In the treatment of osteoarthritis is very important to eliminate all the factors causing the change in the normal structure of the joint. Then the action of drugs aimed at restoring the function of anatomical structures, will be several times more efficient. It is very important for osteoarthritis, as degenerative changes in the joints in this disease can lead to disability.
During exacerbation of osteoarthritis on a background of edema and inflammation of the disturbed blood supply to the joint, in this case first change the metabolic and trophic processes, slows down the updating component of cartilage due to lack of building material which in normal condition are synthesized by cartilage cells, the chondrocytes and chondroblasts. Here come to the aid of chondroprotectors, they are building blocks for cartilage and synovial fluid.
Chondroprotectors for ingestion
The most popular drugs of this group are Artra, don, Structum, teraflex, Chondroitin and Glucosamine.
- Chondroitin (chondroitin sulfate) is a substance that stimulates calcium and phosphorus metabolism in the cartilage tissue. It is a high molecular weight mucopolysaccharide. The action of drugs includes chondroitin, is to slow the destruction of bone and reducing the loss of calcium. They speed up the recovery of bone and inhibit the process of degeneration of cartilage.
- Glucosamine – a substance used primarily to compensate the natural deficit of glucosamine, it stimulates the cells of the synthesis of hyaluronic acid and proteoglycans in the synovial (joint) fluid and restores joint function.
Also used for osteoarthritis of the drug of plant origin Piascledine containing the components of the oils of soybean and avocado. Components Piascledine slow down the development of degenerative processes in the cartilage, prevent pain and restore locomotor activity.
- Adgelon – a drug that stimulates the regeneration of cartilage. Its active ingredient is a glycoprotein, isolated from blood serum of cattle. Adgelon stimulates the growth of young cartilage cells and their differentiation (formation of replacement cartilage). It helps to restore the smooth articular surface in the area of damage and improves joint flexibility. After intraarticular injection, the main substance produced by cells of cartilage tissue, has the same structure as the norm.
- Alflutop is a bioactive concentrate from the bones and cartilage of small marine fish (sprat, whiting black sea, black sea anchovy, shad). The drug consists of mucopolysaccharides, amino acids, chondroitin, peptides and ions of some trace elements (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, copper and zinc). It prevents the destruction of the normal structures of cartilage and bone tissue, is involved in the recovery of interstitial (connective) tissue and the actual cartilage tissue. Anti-inflammatory effect of the drug is based on inhibition of the activity of inflammatory factors and the normalization of the synthesis of hyaluronic acid.
- Valtrex is a synthetic polymer that does not contain substances of animal origin. He is not a natural metabolic product. In the product features silver ions, which determine the antibacterial effect of Naltrexo. The action of the drug in the first stage promotes physical dilution rubbing together affected surfaces of the joint, thus improving its mobility and decrease pain. In the second phase, the drug like a sponge, absorbs the excess joint fluid and water from the cartilage and subchondral portion of the bone, and thus provides a decompression (removal of compression) of nerve endings (pain receptors). In the third stage of the inflammatory substances are inactivated (destroyed) on a strictly-focused special active centers of Naltrexo. Along with that, silver ions migrate to the articular surface, this results in inhibition of endogenous infection. This drug is currently one of the most widely used agents to treat osteoarthritis. Usually to achieve a pronounced therapeutic effect of one intra-articular injection.
Vice synovial fluid
The composition of this group is composed of hyaluronic acid (sodium hyaluronate) such as Synvisc, Synocrom, Ostenil, Permatron and others.
The therapeutic effect of hyaluronic acid due to the ability to normalize the physical properties of synovial fluid of the diseased joint and to restore the ability of cartilage cells to synthesize their own hyaluronate. This effect persists for several months after the end of the course. Based on the positive impact of the application of sodium hyaluronate on the following mechanisms: increasing the viscosity of synovial fluid, restoring its cushioning and protective properties; protection of the articular cartilage from mechanical and chemical pathogenic effects; slowing of degenerative processes in the articular cartilage; the restoration of the biochemical balance of synovial fluid. All this leads to a rapid relief of pain and restoration of mobility in the affected degenerative process of the joint.
Therapeutic effects of hyaluronate sodium is cumulative, appears gradually and persists for a long time in a few months. In the course of treatment is usually administered 5 intra-articular injections.
Osteoarthritis is a metabolic disease in which affected joints: the cartilage is destroyed, there may be bony outgrowths – osteophytes blocking the joint. The cause of this disease is to enhance the degenerative processes in the cartilage, therefore, the use of chondroprotectors, given their mechanism of action in osteoarthritis is more than justified.