The risk group includes young children and the elderly – their natural thermoregulation is imperfect, and immunity needs protection. This includes people with health problems: overweight, heart disease, hypertension, endocrine disorders. Smoking, alcohol, nervous tension and stress also increase the likelihood of sunstroke.
While a person is in the country, on the beach or on a walk on a sunny day, he needs to avoid direct rays and protect his head from the sun with a light, easily ventilated headgear, eyes with sunglasses. It is better to wear light, light clothing made from natural fabrics.
During the active sun, you need to be in the shade and not abuse the prolonged exposure to the sun. Start with 15-20 minutes, then gradually increase the duration. Sun bathing is recommended to be taken in motion, preferably in the morning and evening hours. Food should be moderate and light, drink plenty of water.
With prolonged exposure to the sun you can get a sunstroke. Sunstroke is a special form of heatstroke. The body overheats, a failure occurs in the mechanisms of thermoregulation.
The duration of exposure to the sun is individual and depends on various factors: age, condition of the body, humidity, temperature and other indicators. Some people only need 15-30 minutes to feel the first symptoms, and someone can be in the sun all day and at the same time comfortable feel yourself. If there is no direct exposure to sunlight, this does not mean that there is no danger. In this case, you can also get heat stroke.
Sunstroke affects the functioning of the nervous system, disrupts blood circulation, sweating. Serious respiratory failure occurs. The consequences can be dangerous – even coma and the threat of cardiac arrest, cardiac and respiratory activity.
There are three forms of sunstroke:
- Light – characterized by general weakness, headache, nausea. Pulse and breathing quicker, pupils dilated.
- Medium. A person is stunned, the gait becomes insecure, nosebleeds, fever up to 39-40 degrees, fainting conditions are possible.
- Heavy – the face turns red, and then bluish-pale. Consciousness is disturbed, convulsions, hallucinations occur, body temperature rises to 41–42 degrees, and serious disturbances in cardiac and respiratory activity appear. Perhaps the development of coma and even death.
If symptoms of sunstroke occur on your face, you must call an ambulance team. In the meantime, the following emergency assistance should be provided:
- transfer to a shade or a cool room;
- lay in a horizontal position with raised legs;
- free from squeezing clothes;
- drink cool, mineral, sweetened, with a little salt or plain water;
- moisten face and body with cool water, put a cold compress on the forehead and under the back of the head;
- at a clouding of consciousness to give to smell vapor of liquid ammonia;
- if necessary, do artificial respiration and indirect heart massage.
The patient is recommended bed rest for 2-3 days to restore the body. Doctors will determine the degree of sunstroke and prescribe appropriate therapy.