Modern technology is an apparatus with flexible tube from fibre optics, which allows lighting and display cavity during the examination. Endoscopy is appointed as a separate or preliminary diagnosis, before performing the barium swallow.
The nuances of technique
The standard procedure lasts about three minutes and includes the following steps:
1. Endoscopy of the stomach and intestines are doing in the supine position. Preparation is that the patient lies on a couch or procedure table on the left side, the right leg flexes at the knee and tightens the abdomen. Under the head is a diaper.
2. Remind the patient to not interfere with abundant salivation, pull out tray for spitting. There are times when you need to use the saliva ejector.
3. The thin part of the tube introduced into the esophagus, the doctor gives the signal to man made gulp, avoiding contact of the tip into the trachea. If there is an obstacle, it is impossible to influence the device with power, the physician reassures the patient, takes the pipe back half a centimeter and continued for a few minutes. In this period it is necessary to deeply breathe through the nose, while the doctor deals with the study of the internal organs. After inspection of the gastric mucosa endoscope crank around its axis and pushing to the duodenum. To improve visibility in the tube serving the air. In each position, the examination is carried out on all four sides.
4. After the diagnosis, the physician carefully removes the instrument from the esophagus, on the way again examining all the cavities.
5. Small children is quite difficult to perform endoscopic examination, so it is more suitable for the capsule technique.
Modern medical equipment allows doctors to examine internal organs, to diagnose and treatment without surgery. Endoscopic method of research widely used in gastroenterology, surgery, pulmonology, gynecology, and complements other methods of analysis of the condition of the patients. The procedure is performed by a special device equipped with a video camera.
During the study, there is a possibility of tissue sampling for cytological analysis or biopsy, the physician also takes pictures to document condition and future comparison. The sighting method is applied, if necessary, confirmation of formations, or search to detect new tumors at an early stage. The procedure is absolutely painless, the patient does not feel the manipulation of the forceps. The samples are placed in formalin, labeled and sent to a lab.
Endoscopy of the duodenum and stomach specialists assess the condition of the digestive system. If there is a suspicion of some disease, the recommended procedure:
- 1. Detect pathology of the stomach and intestines at the stage of diagnosis, especially during the preclinical development of gastritis, colitis or ulcers.
- 2. Determining the exact area and distribution of the inflammatory process.
- 3. Analysis of the efficiency of the prescribed treatment.
- 4. In the case of suspected cancer symptoms biopsy of the affected tissue.
- 5. Diagnosis of the consequences of peptic ulcer disease and the identification of scar-inflammatory changes in the stomach in the pyloric which causes obstruction of passage of food.
- 6. As therapeutic interventions endoscopies performed during the removal of foreign bodies.
- 7. Identifying the source and stop bleeding.
- 8. Patients with unclear causes of anemia.
- 9. With the introduction of some medications and as a preparation before surgery.
- 10. If necessary, removal of polyps in the cavity of the digestive system.
Prepare and conduct endoscopy of the stomach is not indicated for the following contraindications:
- Cardiac and pulmonary insufficiency in first and second degree.
- Atherosclerosis, stroke, heart attack.
- Cancer, narrowing and ulcers of the esophagus.
- Hemorrhagic diathesis.
- Internal varicose veins.
- Mental disorders in the patient.
- Obesity and pronounced weakness of the body.
With the limitations of endoscopy of the stomach is carried out in such cases:
- 1. Hypertension of the third degree and angina. The doctor is obliged to correct irregularities in the cardiac and vascular systems by the method of appointment of medical complex.
- 2. Inflammation of the larynx, tonsils and pharynx.
- 3. Ulcers with the threat of perforation and strong gastritis in the acute stage.
- 4. The presence of chronic asthma.
What you need to know before endoscopy?
Preparation for endoscopy of the stomach involves a number of activities. The doctor conducts psychological training, during which the man explained the aims and objectives for the correct diagnosis. Special considerations apply to patients with unstable behavior and nervousness. Patients should be familiar with the rules before endoscopy and after:
- 1. You must inform the doctor about any allergies to drugs, including anesthetics. It is also important to warn of the serious diseases transferred earlier ailments and the existing appointment and medication.
- 2. Manipulations are carried out on an empty stomach. The patient can not eat for 10 hours before the start of endoscopy to provide the doctor an overview of and to prevent vomiting.
- 3. Allowed to use still water, not more than 100 g.
- 4. Smoking before endoscopy is also not recommended.
- 5. For half an hour, the patient is administered the sulphate of atropine, for Kalinovsky patients prescribed an injection of sedatives such as morphine.
- 6. Must be present on endoscopy in clothing that does not restrict the movement, so it’s best to take a homemade costume.
- 7. Discomfort with the introduction of the tube is eliminated by the use of anesthetic. In most cases, in the preparation of the oral cavity and the entrance to the esophagus lidocainum irrigate spray. Patients who have difficulty swallowing the endoscope, appoint intramuscular injections of sedative drugs. To patients in serious condition used General anesthesia.
- 8. That the tube was not peredelyvalis teeth, use a special plastic tray.
- 9. After the test the patient should rest for half an hour, then for half an hour the person is in the supine position. After that he go home and allowed to take food and water.
Complications of endoscopy of the esophagus and stomach are observed only when the rough introduction of the device or inadequate behavior of the patient. In such a situation can be damage to the back of the pharynx, the thoracic internal organs. In case of small abrasions on the mucosa lavage with silver nitrate solution and diet.
In the description of the examination, the doctor records the following:
- The condition of the walls and cavities of all bodies examined.
- The appearance and nature of the contents of the stomach.
- The degree of elasticity and the presence or absence of defects in the tissues.
- Description of motor activity of the digestive system.
- Tumors and focal lesions, if necessary.
After getting the results of endoscopy of the stomach, the patient is sent to a relevant specialist, which assigns the optimal treatment or further examination. Despite the discomfort during manipulation, each person must go through the procedure is not only diagnostic, but also preventive purposes once a year. According to the results of such studies the doctor can get a full picture and give a detailed report and specific request and images required for comparative analysis.