Avitaminosis and hypovitaminosis were a scourge of humanity in past centuries, but these diseases are not uncommon in our days. Numerous infectious and inflammatory ailments, stress, an unreasonable and unbalanced diet, problems with the gastrointestinal tract, bad habits – all this can reduce the level of vitamins in the body to a dangerously low level.
Fortunately, modern medicine can offer various vitamins to fill the deficiency of these substances. One of the most powerful and useful complexes is Aevit. Nevertheless, its effectiveness has the opposite side, the drug has many disadvantages.
And to apply any vitamin complexes, including, and vitamins Aevit, it is necessary with care, that not to do much harm to an organism.
For sure, everyone still knows well from school that vitamins are vital substances for the normal functioning of the human body, which must necessarily come into it from outside. However, the fashion for vitamin supplements has led to the fact that many swallow all vitamins in a row, especially in the spring, at the time of beriberi. Although vitamins – these are the same drugs that should be taken only for certain indications, and in any case not on “every fireman”, for prevention.
The drug Aevit contains two of the most popular vitamins for a person. What kind of vitamins, you can guess already from the first letters of the name of the medicine – it’s vitamins A and E. Their importance for the body can not be overestimated. Although in fact, to the category of vitamins A and E, it is customary to refer whole groups of substances similar in their effect. However, Aevit vitamins contain in their composition the most effective and useful of these substances.
It is retinol, which plays the role of vitamin A, and tocopherol, the most active of the group of vitamins E. Both vitamins supplement and enhance the healing effect of each other on the body and belong to the class of fat-soluble substances. Thus, the vitamins in the composition of the drug are active only when they are inside fats or oils.
Perhaps the main component in the drug is Retinol. This is the most powerful representative of the vitamins of group A, which also includes several related substances – retinal (vitamin A-aldehyde), retinoic acid, dehydroretinol. All of them are united under the common name of retinoids. In addition, carotenoids have a similar effect to retinol.
Many of them are able to transform into retinol, for example, beta-carotene, therefore carotenoids are often called provitamin A. And yet retinol rightfully tops the list of this group of substances and is considered a true or reference vitamin A. Retinol was historically the first open compound from the group of vitamins. That is why it is denoted by the Latin letter A.
The name “retinol” comes from the Latin word “retina” – the retina. This is by no means accidental, because it is difficult to overestimate the importance of vitamin A for the human eye. As is known, the process of converting light into nerve impulses occurs in a special section of the eye, called the retina.
Under the influence of retinol, or more precisely, the retinal alkaloid retinal, special enzymes are formed in the retina of the eye, such as rhodopsin, responsible for night and color vision. The lack of retinol can lead to a serious illness – a chicken blindness, which consists in the fact that a person can not see objects in the dark. This is why doctors often prescribe Aevit for the treatment of eye-related diseases.
However, retinol, which is part of the vitamin complex, is not only necessary for vision. It is also necessary for the skin and hair, as it takes an active part in the processes of regeneration and renewal of the epidermis. With a lack of vitamin, the skin becomes dry and horny, and the hair is brittle and dry.
The process of hair loss can be observed. It is for this reason that retinol is widely used in cosmetology. Practically in any cosmetic preparations present this vitamin. It allows you to rejuvenate the skin, give it a healthier and more attractive look, make hair more lush and shiny. Also, thanks to vitamin A it is possible to prevent many skin diseases. With skin wounds and burns, vitamin accelerates the healing of tissues.
In addition, vitamin A:
takes part in antioxidant processes in the body;
promotes body growth;
stimulates the work of the organs of internal secretion, sebaceous, lacrimal and sweat glands;
improves capillary circulation;
ensures the normal functioning of the lungs;
stimulates the synthesis of certain hormones, for example, progesterone;
The vitamin A in the composition is necessary for the growth of new cells, slows the aging process. Antioxidant properties of retinol, beta-carotene and a number of other carotenoids contribute to reducing the risk of oncological diseases, heart and vascular diseases. These compounds also protect the membranes of neurons from oxidation.
Retinol has immunomodulatory properties. It strengthens mucous membranes, making them impenetrable for bacteria and viruses, increases the activity of lymphocytes and phagocytes, enhances nonspecific immune response.
It is well known that children in developed countries who get enough vitamin A along with food are much less likely to die from diseases such as measles and chicken pox, in contrast to children from developing countries, where a lack of vitamin A in the diet is a common phenomenon. Studies show that a sufficient amount of vitamin A can play a significant role even in prolonging the life of AIDS patients.
Vitamin A is essential for the normal development of the embryo. The lack of vitamin in the mother can lead to a small weight of the newborn baby and various deviations in its development. However, nevertheless, Aevit should not be used to stabilize the pregnancy process, and the reasons for this will be indicated below.
Of course retinol, retinoids and carotenoids can be obtained not only from the drug Aevit. These substances are contained in many food products. Retinol can be found mainly in foods of animal origin, for example, in the liver, dairy products, butter, cheese, eggs, caviar, fish oil. Carotenoids and beta-carotene enter the body mainly with plant food. It is, first of all, vegetables and fruits of red and yellow color – carrots, pumpkins, tomatoes, peppers, persimmons. A lot of carotenoids can be found in greenery.
However, in some cases, the intake of vitamins A in the body in sufficient quantities may not occur. The reasons for this may be different – diseases of the digestive tract, infections, improper diet. And the use of vitamin supplements, which contain vitamin A, will help eliminate this deficit.
In its pure form, retinol is rather unstable. Therefore, in vitamin complexes, including Aevit, retinol is contained in the form of acetate or palmitate.
Retinol is a fat-soluble vitamin. In water, it practically does not dissolve. And this means that for its assimilation the body needs fats. Because the vitamin is extremely important for the body, and at the same time, it can enter into it with food not every day, nature has developed mechanisms for its preservation. Vitamin in the main (90%) is stored in the liver and from there it can enter the body in case of lack of connection. Part of retinol is also deposited in other tissues – a considerable concentration contains vitamin in adipose tissue, kidneys and adrenal glands.
The norm of vitamin A intake for an adult (over 14 years old) is 900 mcg per day for a man, 700 mkg for an adult woman. The maximum daily dose is 3000 μg. In childhood, the vitamin needs less. At the age of 9-13 years, the norm is 600 micrograms per day, at the age of 4-8 years – 400 micrograms, at the age of 1-3 years – 300 micrograms. In infants, the need is slightly higher than that of children older than one year: 400 mcg in 0-6 months, 500 mcg at 7-12 months.
Pregnant women need 770 micrograms of vitamin per day. The dose of breast-feeding women is 1300 mcg per day.
Lack of vitamin (hypovitaminosis) can be identified by its deficiency in blood plasma. The minimum allowable concentration of the vitamin in the blood is 100 μg / l. The vitamin A content in the hepatic depot should not be less than 270 μg / g.
In addition, for the full absorption of vitamin A, some other substances are needed, in particular, vitamin E. In many ways, this is why vitamin E is included in the Aevit preparation – to protect and increase the digestibility of vitamin A.
People taking the drug Aevit, you should keep in mind that the withdrawal of vitamin A is quite slow. For 21 days, about a third of the dose administered is excreted. Thus, with prolonged admission of Aevit, it is possible to accumulate vitamin A above the allowable concentration.
The second component in the preparation of Aevit is alpha-tocopherol, the main representative of the group of substances – tocopherols. These substances and it is customary to refer to the vitamins of group E. The organism receives the vitamin mainly from plant products. Like vitamin A, vitamin E is poorly soluble in water, but it dissolves well in fats.
Initially, it was believed that tocopherol plays an important role only in the reproductive system of the body. And indeed, with regard to the contribution that the vitamin makes to the reproduction of offspring, it can not be overestimated, because the lack of tocopherol in the body can lead to infertility, both in men and in women. Vitamin has a beneficial effect on the condition of the male and female gonads. Actually it is for this reason that tocopherols got their name – from two Greek words – “tokos” (progeny) and “fero” (bear).
However, it later became clear that the function of vitamin E is much broader. To put it briefly, tocopherol is a powerful antioxidant. Tocopherol molecules attach to cell membranes and, like guards, prevent all attempts of free radicals to oxidize the components of the cell. Thus, tocopherol, which is part of the vitamin complex, prevents premature aging and cell destruction. This function is especially pronounced in the case of blood cells. It has been reliably established that tocopherol is necessary for the normal functioning of erythrocytes – red blood cells.
In the body, tocopherol performs a number of other functions, for example, it takes part in the metabolism of fats and the formation of lipoproteins, reduces the level of “harmful” cholesterol, has antihypoxic properties. In addition, the antioxidant properties of the vitamin spread not only to cells. In particular, tocopherol protects against the oxidation and destruction of many vitamins, and, in the first place, retinol. Thus, the simultaneous presence in the composition of one preparation of these two vitamins is by no means accidental. Tocopherol helps retinol perform its functions, makes it more effective and reduces the toxicity that retinol can exhibit in high doses.
Also, tocopherol is able to improve microcirculation in capillaries, promotes body growth, has a beneficial effect on the immune system, participates in the synthesis of proteins and tissue regeneration processes, reduces the permeability of the walls (thereby reducing the intensity of edema).
Insufficient amount of vitamin E is observed not only in people whose diet contains little tocopherol, but also in residents of radionuclide-contaminated areas, people who have been intoxicated, in premature infants. Symptoms of hypovitaminosis can be extremely diverse (impaired immunity, brain damage, muscle tissue, blood cells and liver), but they all have one reason at their core – a violation of the permeability of cell membranes and the poisoning of cells with various toxic substances.
Form of issue
Aevit is produced mainly in capsules. Also there are ampoules with composition for intramuscular injection.
The preparation in the form of capsules contains 100,000 IU of retinol and 0.05 g of tocopherol. What does ME mean in this case? IU are international units intended to indicate the content of vitamin A in medicines. As noted above, the vitamin A group contains a number of related substances that are by no means equivalent in their activity.
For example, beta-carotene has half the activity compared to retinol, and other carotenoids found in plant foods are even less effective – approximately 10-20 times compared to retinol. Such a system makes it possible to compare vitamin supplements in which different substances are contained. Aevit differs from many other vitamin complexes in that it contains the most useful of vitamins A – retinol, more precisely, retinol in the form of palmitate.
Gelatin capsules Aevit usually have a spherical or elliptical shape. Inside the capsules, a dividing line is visible. The capsule also contains yellow or dark yellow oil. Usually it is some vegetable oil, for example, sunflower, corn or soy, in which vitamins are dissolved.
The gelatin capsule shell contains not only gelatin, but also glycerol, methyl parahydroxybenzoate and propyl parahydroxybenzoate.
In the composition for injection, in addition to vitamins can be found only oil, serving for them as a solvent. The cream tube usually contains 50 ml of the drug.
Also on sale you can find cream Aevit for external use. The cream also contains vitamins A and E. In addition to them, the cream contains phenoxyethanol, ethylhexiglycerin, raspberry extract, rosemary, edelweiss, fatty alcohols, glycerin and water. Composition for injection Aevit is supplied in ampoules of 1 ml.
Aevit is dispensed in pharmacies without a prescription.
To analogues Aevita can be attributed not any vitamin complexes, but only those that contain in their composition a large number of vitamins A and E and do not contain other vitamins. Among such drugs, you can note the Vitaminel vitamin complex.
The scope of Aevit is quite wide. Nevertheless, it is worth remembering that Aevit is a medicinal, not a preventative, and should not be used as a means to prevent beriberi. This is due to sufficiently high doses of vitamins, which contains the drug. First of all, it concerns vitamin A.
The main situations in which it is recommended to take the drug are such diseases or conditions of the digestive tract, in which the intake of vitamins A and E in the body is difficult or even impossible. Such cases include gastritis, steatorii, enteritis, resection of the stomach, Crohn’s disease.
Also Aevit is appointed at:
disorders of blood circulation, including atherosclerosis;
obliterating endocarditis and endarteritis;
systemic lupus erythematosus;
cystic fibrosis of the pancreas;
cirrhosis of the liver;
drug addiction, alcohol dependence, addiction to tobacco (as part of a comprehensive therapy);
increased physical exertion;
recovery after long-term serious illness;
However, in all cases, the body should have a deficiency of vitamins A and E or an increased need for these vitamins. Without this condition, you can not take the drug.
Of course, Aevit is often used in the treatment of many ophthalmic diseases. First of all, they include atrophy of the optic nerve, night blindness (hemeralopia), xerophthalmia, retinitis pigmentosa.
As a rule, with the exception of hypovitaminosis, the drug is used as part of complex therapy of diseases.
Aevita does not have absolute contraindications. However, there are situations in which reception is highly undesirable. Nevertheless, even in such cases, Aevit is not always contraindicated. It can be taken by the patient if he has a serious deficiency of vitamins A and E.
Contraindications also include children’s age (under 14 years), pregnancy and lactation. As for contraindications for the use of Aevita in childhood, it should be noted that the dose of vitamin A, contained in the drug, is very high. Therefore, it is better for children to use more suitable vitamin complexes with moderate dosages.
But why is the use of the drug contraindicated in pregnancy? After all, as you know, vitamin A – one of the most important vitamins necessary for the normal course of pregnancy. This is true, but recent studies have shown that excess vitamin A during childbearing is no less dangerous than its deficiency, as it can lead to abnormalities in the development of the fetus. Moreover, teratogenicity of vitamin A in high concentrations can persist several months after the end of the intake (do not forget that vitamin A can accumulate in the body).
Thus, Aevit, when carrying a child, can be prescribed only if there is a clear lack of vitamin A in the body of the expectant mother and treatment should be carried out under the strict supervision of the doctor. Otherwise, the drug is prohibited. Moreover, in the event that a woman plans a pregnancy, then it is worth interrupting the treatment with the drug six months before the onset of it. Accordingly, and before you start taking the drug, a woman should make sure that she does not have a baby. If a woman still needs a drug in the situation, then in this case intramuscular injections are strictly prohibited, and capsules should be used. But usually in this case, other vitamin complexes with lower concentrations of vitamins are used. The impossibility of using the drug by women who are preparing to become mothers, can be attributed to its few minuses.
Also, Aevit should not be used in the following cases:
individual intolerance of its components;
some kidney problems, (for example, chronic glomerulonephritis, acute and chronic nephritis);
problems with the cardiovascular system (decompensated heart failure, cardiosclerosis, myocardial infarction, increased vascular permeability, risk of thromboembolism);
sarcoidosis in history;
And, of course, in the event that in the body there is an excess of vitamins A and E.
Also, Aevit’s treatment is not recommended for certain diseases of the digestive tract and liver:
cirrhosis of the liver,
With heart attacks, thromboembolism, severe forms of atherosclerosis, the drug treatment is possible in some cases, but it should be carried out under the strict supervision of a doctor.
Side effects and overdose
In the application of any medicines there are not only advantages, but also many disadvantages. And one of the drawbacks is the presence of side effects. However, vitamins A and E, present in the composition of the remedy are natural substances for the body, which in certain doses are always in it. Therefore, intolerance to the main components of the drug, as well as allergic reactions to them can not be. Another thing is the intolerance of the auxiliary components of the drug, or the unpleasant phenomena that arise when there is an excess in the body of these vitamins. Very often the excess of vitamins A and E occurs as a result of an overdose. Among the minuses of the drug should include a large number of active substances in its composition. This can lead to overdose with a high probability.
Aevit, taken in therapeutic doses, does not affect the speed of psychomotor reactions. Therefore, it can be used by people who manage motor vehicles or perform work that requires concentration of attention.
An overdose of vitamin A, which is in the composition of the drug, is much more dangerous in comparison with an overdose of vitamin E, since vitamin A is deposited in the liver, and its excess is excreted from the body extremely slowly. In addition, it should be borne in mind that retinol in its pure form, not associated with special proteins produced in the liver, is quite toxic. From practice, severe cases of vitamin A poisoning are known, up to a lethal outcome.
An overdose of vitamin E is not so dangerous, and life-threatening symptoms sometimes do not occur even in the case of a 20-fold excess of the daily dose. This is due to the fact that vitamin E mainly enters the body with bile and the excess of vitamin contained in the bile is simply discharged into the intestines and removed together with feces. Part of vitamin E is metabolized and excreted from the body with urine. However, a chronic overdose of vitamin E is also dangerous to health.
Overdose on taking Aevit can manifest itself in three main forms:
acute overdose of vitamin A,
chronic overdose of vitamin A,
an overdose of vitamin E.
Acute overdose of vitamin A can develop 6 hours later, and chronic overdose with this vitamin usually occurs after a prolonged intake of Aevita (for weeks or months)
Symptoms of an acute overdose of vitamin A:
double vision in the eyes,
the formation of ulcers on the mucosa of the oral cavity,
peeling of the lips and skin,
Chronic overdose of vitamin A is expressed by the following manifestations:
pain in the bones;
dryness of the mucous membrane of the mouth and lips;
pain in the stomach;
frequent or profuse urination;
yellow and orange spots on the skin, mainly in the nasolabial triangle, palms and soles;
oligomenorrhea in women;
increased intraocular pressure;
changes in the structure of bones;
An overdose of vitamin E, despite the relative scarcity, can also manifest itself in life-threatening symptoms:
increased blood pressure;
hemorrhage, including the brain;
At the first symptoms, indicating an overdose, you should immediately cancel Aevit. The patient is then given mannitol (to reduce intracranial pressure and reduce the resulting dizziness, headache and vomiting), glucocorticosteroids and vikasol (to accelerate the excretion of components, to prevent bleeding). Symptomatic therapy is also provided.
Instructions for use
With most diseases, Aevita capsule is prescribed per day. The course of treatment can last from 20 to 40 days. With obliterating endoarteritis treatment course usually have a maximum duration of 40 days, with other conditions and diseases, you can get by with a course of 30 days. If necessary, after a few months (usually 3-6) the course can be repeated. Sometimes a doctor can prescribe to drink vitamins Aevit with shock doses – 2-3 capsules a day. However, the course of therapy is usually shorter and does not exceed 2 weeks. The maximum number of capsules per day is 6. This dose is usually used for severe avitaminosis.
The effectiveness of absorption of vitamins is usually not dependent on food intake. Do not keep the capsule in your mouth for a long time, it should be swallowed immediately, in order to avoid the destruction of the gelatinous membrane.
Parenteral administration is usually performed by intramuscular route. It is used in cases where the patient for some reason can not take Aevit in the form of capsules. Intravenous administration is unacceptable, as it can lead to severe reactions and inflammation of the veins in the area of administration. It should also not allow liquid to enter the subcutaneous layer.
If Aevit is injected intramuscularly, a large depot of vitamins is formed at the injection site, which gradually enter the bloodstream. This is facilitated by the presence in the muscle tissue of a dense network of blood vessels. In the subcutaneous layer, there is no such network. Therefore, if you enter Aevit under the skin, then at the injection site, seals are formed, which can become inflamed and hurt.
Optimum injection site:
upper outer part of the buttock (for people who do not have excess weight),
the front outer surface of the thigh (upper third),
the outer part of the shoulder (upper third),
anterior upper (above the navel) abdomen surface,
lateral surfaces of the abdomen (for people who are not obese).
In people who are overweight, it is recommended to inject Aevit into the shoulder or thigh, because in these areas of the body the muscles are closest to the skin and the risk is not to get into the muscle tissue, but into fatty tissue is minimized.
For older people, Aevit should be pricked with caution. It is best that this process is supervised by a qualified doctor.
Before administration Aevit needs to be warmed to room temperature, for example, after holding several minutes with an ampoule with medicine in the hands.
Injections are carried out according to standard rules. The site of the injection is wiped with a cotton swab dipped in antiseptics (chlorhexidine or alcohol). Then, the oily vitamin solution is drawn from the ampoule into a disposable syringe. Remove air bubbles from the syringe. To do this, the syringe is rotated with a needle upward and it is easy to tap the syringe wall in the direction from the piston to the needle. The bubbles rising upward are removed from the syringe with a light push on the piston.
The needle is then inserted into the injection site at the right angle, and the contents of the syringe are slowly squeezed inward. After removing the syringe, the injection site is again treated with an antiseptic.
The usual dosage is 1 ml once a day. The standard duration of the course of injections is 20 days, in some cases it can be extended to 30-40 days. A repeat course is also possible, usually after 4-6 months.
As already mentioned, vitamin A is very useful for the skin. Therefore, the external application of the product has gained great popularity in cosmetology and dermatology, in the treatment of certain skin problems. This is due to some useful properties of the constituent components of Aevit. Vitamin E stabilizes the production of hormones – estrogens and testosterone. Vitamin A normalizes the processes of recovery of cellular epithelium. With regular application, Aevit can demonstrate the following effects:
help remove acne and acne,
will make the skin more elastic and elastic,
slow the aging of the skin,
will remove fine wrinkles,
will reduce the likelihood of skin damage by pathogenic bacteria and viruses,
will lead to normal microcirculation in the epidermis,
moisturizes the skin.
In dermatology and cosmetology, Aevit’s testimony is applied when:
problem skin (acne, acne, comedones),
increased activity of sebaceous glands,
For cosmetic purposes, you can take as a special cream Aevit, and use Aevit from ampoules. This method of using Aevit is safer, since in this case the risk of overdose is minimized. Before applying the product on the skin, it must be mixed with some vegetable oil, best of all, olive. After the preparation, it is applied to the skin and rubbed. To ensure that the Aevit vitamins are absorbed better, the area treated with the composition is recommended to cover with a plastic wrap, and then with a towel. After the procedure, you do not need to rinse the oil. The procedure can be repeated twice a week and carried out for two months. After passing the course, the skin will become much healthier, will become smooth and fresh.
You can also use a special cream Aevit. It should be applied to the skin twice a day, in the morning and in the evening. The course of treatment lasts 1-2 months.
In the treatment of dermatological diseases in addition to external use can take Aevit in the form of capsules. If the skin is in very poor condition, then the course of taking the vitamin complex inside is recommended to be performed before the beginning of its external application. Dosage of the medication in this case is standard – 1 capsule Aevita per day, the duration of treatment is 20-30 days.
In order to make sure that the oil solution does not cause allergic reactions on the skin, it is recommended to initially test it by applying it to the inner surface of the forearm. If no signs of allergic reactions occur within 24 hours, Aevit can be safely used for cosmetic manipulation.
Using Aevita to improve the condition of the hair
Sometimes Aevit is used to improve the condition of the hair. It is recommended that you simultaneously take the drug inside and apply it to your hair. It should not, however, be applied to the hair liquid drug from ampoules in its pure form, it is necessary to pre-prepare a special formulation. To do this, 1-2 Aevita capsules should be mixed with 2 raw egg yolks and low-fat sour cream (1 tablespoon).
After the composition is ready, it will be necessary to rub it into the skin of the part of the head where the hair grows and leave it on the surface of the skin for 1-2 hours. After that, the head covered with the composition must be washed with shampoo. This recipe will help to cope with dryness and brittle hair. The procedure can be repeated 1-2 times a week for 3 months. If necessary, after six months, the course of procedures can be repeated.
Interaction with other drugs
In general, Aevit is well combined with other medicines. Aevit enhances the action of NSAIDs, estrogens, medicines designed to combat the symptoms of epilepsy, antioxidants, vitamin D, cardiac glycosides. A drug from the group of antibiotics, tetracycline, together with high doses of vitamin A can help increase intracranial pressure. The drug can not be combined with other vitamin complexes that contain vitamins A and E, in order to avoid overdose.
A diet high in selenium lowers the body’s need for tocopherols. Therefore, if the patient adheres to such a diet, then he needs to reduce the dosage of the drug in 2, and sometimes 3 times.
Estrogens increase the risk of overdose with vitamin A. Medicines containing calcium in their composition increase the risk of hypercalcemia. Preparations of gold, silver and anticoagulants increase the risk of bleeding.
Mineral oils, taken as a laxative, interfere with the absorption and absorption of vitamins. Therefore Aevit in this case will not be able to show its therapeutic effects. With a lack of zinc in the body, the digestibility of vitamin A, which is part of the drug, is reduced. Aevit reduces the effectiveness of drugs from the class of glucocorticosteroids. The use of ethanol and alcoholic beverages can lead to the fact that the drug will be less effective. Medicines containing iron, increase the body’s need for tocopherols.