Loratadine is one of the most popular antihistamines (anti-allergic) funds worldwide. In the Russian Federation it is included in the government approved list of vital and essential medicines. Take it to reduce the intensity of allergic symptoms and relieve for seasonal allergies.
Release form and composition
The main active ingredient of the drug is loratadine. It is available in the following forms:
Pills. Each tablet contains 10 mg loratadine, as well as additional substances – lactose, calcium stearate, potato starch and croscarmellose sodium. The amount and type of excipients, as well as the appearance of the tablets and their number in the package may vary depending on the manufacturer. Besides the usual, there are also soluble effervescent tablets.
Syrup. Liquid clear, colourless or with a faint yellowish tinge. 5 ml of solution contains 5 mg of loratadine and auxiliary substances, such as citric acid, sorbitol, flavoring and distilled water. Depending on the manufacturer, the composition and appearance of the product may vary.
How does loratadine
Histamine is a chemical that causes many Allergy symptoms. It is stored in the so-called fat cells and under normal conditions inactive. However, if events occur that the body sees as a threat, histamine is released, goes free-form and begins to act. It affects the receptors on the cell surface, and its effect varies depending on the type of receptors. For example, H1-receptors located on the cells of smooth muscles, the walls of blood vessels and in the nervous system responsible for involuntary contraction of smooth muscles (bronchi, intestines, blood vessels), increase the production of mucus bronchi and the nasal cavity, reduce large and expanding small blood vessels. Large quantities of histamine can lead to anaphylactic shock.
But if you are allergic release of histamine can cause a completely harmless substance that the human body was perceived as hostile; when exceeding a certain concentration histamine goes free-form and begins its work. The action of loratadine based on the fact that it inhibits the release of histamine from mast cells and blocks H1 receptors, preventing them to perceive the histamine and thus preventing the development of Allergy symptoms. Loratadine reduces the permeability of capillaries, reduces the risk of oedema and relieves spasm of smooth muscles of vessels and bronchi.
After half an hour or an hour after application loratadine is beginning to have its effect – reduces itching and swelling of the tissues, reduces the mucus. At full strength loratadine acts within 8-12 hours after ingestion, the effect persists throughout the day. Quickly and completely absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract, metabolised in the liver and completely eliminated from the body depending on the condition and health of the patient using 16-35 hours. Through the blood-brain barrier does not penetrate, does not cause addiction.
Indications for use Loratadine
Symptoms of allergies – allergic rhinitis, conjunctivitis, pruritus, rash, swelling, and pain of insect bites.
How to use loratadine
It is advisable to take loratadine for at least one hour before meals; thus faster reaches the maximum concentration of the drug in the blood. Generally, the recommended dose for adults is 10 mg once a day, for children from 3 to 12 years: 5 mg 1 time per day, and if the weight exceeds 30 kg, then 10 mg 1 times a day. For children or difficulty swallowing adults are recommended to take the syrup.
If the patient misses a dose, take it as soon as possible. If before the next dose had little time left, it is better to leave it as is. Double the dose of the drug can not be accepted.
Liver failure, alcoholic liver disease. Use with caution, dose decrease to 5 mg per day, as liver failure causes an increase in the level of maximum concentration of drug in the blood. In severe liver to take the drug is not recommended.
Children up to two years to give the loratadine is due to the presence of alcohol in the product.
When individual sensitivity to the drug components should avoid the medication.
Side effects after taking Loratadine occur in less than 2% of cases – about the same rate as after taking a placebo. Adults can get sick and dizzy, they may feel fatigue, dry mouth, drowsiness, nausea. Rarely has palpitations. Allergic reactions to loratadine occur very infrequently. However, if after taking the medication noticed symptoms like rash, itching, swelling (especially of the face, tongue and throat), dizziness, difficulty breathing, should immediately seek medical help.
There are not all the side effects that may be caused by loratadine; in many ways their appearance is due to the individual reaction of the organism. If after receiving any disturbing symptoms, consult a doctor.
Loratadine is not able to prevent the occurrence of serious allergic reactions (such as anaphylactic shock). So if the doctor advised the patient everywhere to carry the injector with epinephrine, replace it with Loratadine is impossible.
Loratadine also can affect the effectiveness of the Allergy tests, so before their implementation, it is recommended to consult a doctor and to stop taking the drug at least a week before tests.
Usually, Loratadine does not cause drowsiness if the patient adheres to the recommended dose. However, because of the risk of its occurrence at the time of taking the drug are advised to exercise caution when activities associated with high requirements for concentration (for example, when driving a car).
Pregnancy and breast-feeding. Clinical studies on the effects of Loratadine on the body of a pregnant or nursing mother and child was conducted, so it is recommended to use it only when benefit to the mother outweighs risk to the fetus. It is desirable to refuse feeding for the period of receiving Loratadine, as it passes into breast milk.
Symptoms of overdose Loratadine symptoms similar to overdose with other anticholinergic drugs – it is headache, palpitations, drowsiness. Treat overdose, induction of vomiting, gastric lavage and adsorbents (e.g., activated carbon).
Interaction of Loratadine with other drugs
The co-administration of Loratadine with other medications may affect its effectiveness or increase the risk of side effects. It is recommended to make a list of taken on a regular basis, medicines (including supplements and herbs) and consult a doctor. During the course of taking Loratadine it is undesirable to start taking a new drug or change the dose or stop taking old without consulting a doctor.
Phenytoin, barbiturates, tricyclic antidepressants and other drugs related to inductors of microsomal oxidation reduce the effectiveness of loratadine.
If loratadine be taken with ketoconazole, erythromycin, cimetidine, levels in the blood increases, but the man is not affected in almost any way.
Interaction of Loratadine with alcohol
Loratadine does not affect the effects of alcohol on the Central nervous system, however, the ethanol reduces the effectiveness of the product.
Terms of sale
As a rule, medicines should be stored at room temperature (15° to 25°), away from direct sunlight and in low humidity; therefore, contrary to popular belief, store loratadine in the refrigerator is not necessary. And, of course, to the place of storage of medicines should not be access by children and Pets.
On the Russian pharmaceutical market drugs containing loratadine, manufactured by different firms, so the storage conditions of these drugs can vary. After the purchase of the drug is recommended to read the instructions and adhere to these rules of storage.
Up to three years.
The price for drugs containing loratadine, varies depending on the manufacturer and amount/volume. The average price for 30 tablets starts from 65 RUB (“loratadine”) and ends 540 RUB (claritin).
Medicines containing the same active substance as “loratadine”: “claritin”, “Loragexal”, “loratadine-Teva”, “Lomilan”, “Sucking”, etc.
The medications that have the same effect on the body: “Help”, “Desloratadine”, “Peritol” and so forth.