Allergic manifestations are diverse – it may be dermatitis, and rash, and urticaria, and bronchial asthma, and rhinitis, and edema. However, in all cases, the Allergy takes the patient a lot of trouble, and sometimes can even be life-threatening. So hard to find Allergy pills that would be effective in various manifestations of this disease, would have a minimum of side effects and is equally well suitable for kids and adults. All these qualities have Zodak is one of the modern means of Allergy.
The principle of operation
An allergic reaction is a complex biological process that is caused by intake of a certain substance causing the Allergy – the allergen. The consequence of this event is an allergic response resulting from the body’s immune system. It produces a number of substances, triggering a cascade of complex transformations, which appear unpleasant for the person the symptoms – itching, irritation, inflammation, redness, swelling.
Among these substances leading role for histamine. Therefore, most of the antiallergic drugs aimed at neutralizing the unpleasant features of the histamine. And the side effects of the drug in this case is no exception. Its main component, cetirizine is selective blocker of histamine receptors of the H1 type. Thus, cetirizine enters into competitive relations with histamine and does not allow him to affect in the tissues sensitive to histamine cells. This means that the chain of biochemical processes that lead to allergic reactions, interrupted. In addition, cetirizine inhibits the release of histamine from special cells of the immune system. Zodak reduces migration of these immune cells like eosinophils, neutrophils and basophils. Thus, the side effects of the drug acts at a different stage of development of allergic reactions – both early and late.
Even if histamine is formed, it is valid for a certain time and after 2-3 days destroyed. Therefore, if during this period the body is under the protection of antihistamines, allergic reactions will not occur.
In addition, cetirizine helps to reduce spasm of smooth muscles of blood vessels, reduces the permeability of the vessel walls. All this leads to a reduction of edema at the local level.
Cetirizine belongs to the second generation antihistamines. This means that it has a number of advantages to the reliable, proven in terms of effectiveness, but, nevertheless, it is not always safe antihistamines of the first generation. This group includes such famous medicines as tavegil, suprastin and Dimedrol. In contrast, cetirizine has minimal anticholinergic effects on the body, exerts antiserotonin action, has a sedative effect and almost does not penetrate the blood-brain barrier, that is, in other words, in the human brain. Therefore, when using the side effects of the drug containing cetirizine, the patient will not develop typical anticholinergic effects – blurred vision, dry mouth, etc. Also from the side effects of the drug person is not sleepy, can not be said about many antihistamines of the first generation.
However, each class of drugs has its own scope, and therefore we cannot say that cetirizine in everything better than the old antihistamines. A relative drawback of the side effects of the drug is its relatively low speed. The effect of the drug is seen only after 30 minutes, if not hours. Although the duration of action for cetirizine is quite large and is about the day.
Therefore, despite its mild effect on the body, side effects of the drug, like other drugs containing cetirizine are not suitable if the patient has violent allergic reaction. In such cases, the speed of the therapeutic effects of funds plays a crucial role and therefore it is preferable to use antihistamines first generation. However, despite this disadvantage, in the treatment of allergies the use of cetirizine showed a high effectiveness and minimum side effects.
After just three days after the patient finished taking the side effects of the drug, his body will regenerate tissue sensitivity to histamine receptors. This means that the side effects of the drug leaves the body no irreversible changes.
Cetirizine does not affect the function of the lungs. According to research, it can be used by patients with bronchial asthma of light and medium severity. Cetirizine does not have a negative impact on fertility.
The degree of biological availability depends on the shape of side effects of the drug (pills, syrup or drops).
Cetirizine has a high degree of binding to blood plasma proteins. The medication does not penetrate the blood-brain barrier and acts outside of cells. Enters breast milk (up to 90% of the concentration in the blood). It is metabolized in the liver and excreted mainly by the kidneys. While taking the drug within 10 days in accordance with the manual volume occurs its accumulation in the body. Half-life in adults – 10 hours, children 2-12 years – 5-6 hours, the children 0,5-2 years – 3 h impaired renal function the half-life time increased to 30 h.
Zodak comes in three forms. First, it is a tablet having the dosage in 10 mg. Tablets Zodak Express have twice lower dosage of 5 mg. However, they have one feature, which is described below. The tablets are film-coated and have risk, allowing to divide them into two halves.
Second, it drops used inside. There is also a syrup of the side effects of the drug intended for oral administration. Other forms of side effects of the drug, for example, are designed for parenteral administration, does not exist. Drug side effects of the drug can be purchased in a drugstore without a prescription.
Auxiliary components included in the composition of various dosage forms
In addition to cetirizine, tablets are also included:
- magnesium stearate,
- corn starch,
- lactose monohydrate,
- titanium dioxide.
The composition of the syrup Zodak, in addition to cetirizine hydrochloride and water are:
- propylene glycol,
- glacial acetic acid,
- sodium saccharin dihydrate,
- sodium acetate trihydrate,
Composed of drops of Zodak and you can basically find the same components as in the syrup, except for the fact that they do not include sweetener – sorbitol and flavoring:
- propylene glycol,
- glacial acetic acid,
- sodium saccharin dihydrate,
- sodium acetate trihydrate,
Zodak and Zodak Express
Molecule of cetirizine may have two spatial variety, or, as the chemists say, two isomer. Both isomers are mirror-symmetrical relative to each other. They differ only in the point of attachment of the group of atoms COOH. But biochemical activity is only one of them – levocetirizine or R-isomer. Another kind of biologically neutral. Meanwhile, the drug side effects of the drug (don’t care what it is tablets or drops) are represented by molecules of both species, and in approximately equal proportions. But pills Zodak Express contain only the correct molecule cetirizine – levocetirizine molecules.
What is expressed is the difference from a therapeutic point of view? That Zodak Express has more performance, more efficiency and fewer side effects. A reduced amount of active substances in the composition means, and means reduced load on the kidneys and liver, less effort which put these bodies in order to metabolize and excrete the drug outside of the body. Meanwhile, at half the dosage of tablets side effects of the drug Express have the same efficacy than drug side effects of the drug the common variety. But, of course, should pay for everything and tablets side effects of the drug Express is almost twice as expensive than a simple Zodak.
Drops Side Effects Of The Drug
1 ml drops side effects of the drug also contains 10 mg cetirizine. Drops side effects of the drug produced in vials 20 ml Vials equipped with a special cover, so they are very difficult to access children. In order to uncork a bottle of Zodak, it is necessary to press on its cap down and turn it counterclockwise. But in order to close the medicine bottle, no special efforts are made unnecessary.
It is very important to keep in mind that the drops side effects of the drug are not intended for instillation in the eye! Is drops are used exclusively inside. Even in that case, if the patient suffers from allergic diseases associated with the eyes, e.g. conjunctivitis, he needs to take the drops prescribed by the manual method, that is by swallowing them. Also it is not recommended to apply the medicine of the side effects of the drug in the nose. Although sometimes the doctor may want to instill a drop into the nose of infants and toddlers, but such therapy can be carried out only under the supervision of a physician.
Compared with the syrup drops side effects of the drug do not contain carbohydrates, so they can take people suffering from diabetes.
Syrup Side Effects Of The Drug
Also there is syrup side effects of the drug, which is cetirizine. The syrup is intended primarily for the treatment of children. The syrup is available in bottles of 100 ml Vials of medicine supplied measuring spoon that can measure the amount of the drug. Dosage of cetirizine syrup side effects of the drug is somewhat less than in the drops, and at 5 mg/ml.
Analogues of the drug
On the market there are other tablets, drops and syrup containing cetirizine. These drugs are called structural analogs or synonyms. There are a lot of antihistamines with other active substance. However, not always these pills can replace the side effects of the drug its indications. Also be aware that the list of contraindications and the degree of tolerance to the side effects of the drug, and other antihistamines can be very different.
Drugs side effects of the drug and the side effects of the drug Express are produced by the French company Sanofi.
Zodak is shown in cases when the patient observed hypersensitivity reactions to allergens contained in the environment. It could be allergens contained in food products and house dust, and pollen, and allergens trapped in the body after insect bites. Allergic reactions caused by exposure of these allergens can be expressed in various forms:
- allergic dermatitis,
- allergic rhinitis,
- bronchial asthma (composed of combination therapy),
- pollinosis .
Exacerbation of allergic diseases may be seasonal in nature (e.g. exposure to pollen), and then we are talking about seasonal allergies. Or may not be seasonal in nature.
In all of these cases, it may help Zodak, be it a pill, syrup or drops.
The Zodak some contraindications. It can be used for treatment of children starting from year (and under a doctor’s supervision and from the age of 6 months). Nevertheless, tablets are contraindicated for children under 6 years. This is due to the fact that a small child is sometimes difficult to swallow pills. Not recommended medication also in pregnancy and lactation. Although evidence that the side effects of the drug leads to complication of pregnancy, abnormalities in the development of the fetus or harm the health of the baby feeding on mother’s milk, today there is no. However, there is no evidence of full safety of the drug. And if so, then the doctors follow the principle of “do no harm” and is not prescribed side effects of the drug to women during pregnancy and lactation.
In addition, the side effects of the drug are not shown in terminal stages of renal failure. This is due to the fact that the drug is excreted mainly by the kidneys. Impaired renal function requires correction dosing of the drug. You can’t take the side effects of the drug and in severe bronchospasm.
Relative contraindications are impaired renal function, epilepsy, increased risk of seizure, predisposition to urinary retention (e.g. prostatic hyperplasia), old age. In these cases, the drug side effects of the drug should be used with caution.
In the treatment of side effects of the drug drinking alcohol is not recommended, as it may cause Central nervous system depression.
If Zodak in the form of drops is used to treat children under one year, it should periodically monitor your heartbeat and breathing. In some cases the pediatrician may prescribe drops side effects of the drug to an infant’s nose.
Also the drug is contraindicated in hypersensitivity, not only to cetirizine, but also to hydroxyzine and piperazine.
The syrup contains sorbitol, therefore, it is undesirable for patients with diabetes.
When conducting skin Allergy tests are required three days in advance to stop taking the medication because it can inhibit the development of skin reactions.
Naturally that the drug, designed to protect the body from allergic reactions must not itself call them. Indeed it side effects while taking the drug are extremely rare. And even if they occur, are reversible, ie, after discontinuation of the side effects of the drug, they should undergo. Although allergic reactions to cetirizine itself is not excluded. It can be hives, rash, itching and angioedema. Although in this case it is not always possible to distinguish the source of allergic symptoms from those that cause side effects of the drug.
Despite the fact that cetirizine seems to be not having serious holinoblokirutego action, some patients when taking Zodak still complain of typical symptoms typical of anticholinergics – dry mouth, disturbance of accommodation of vision. Can meet sedative effects, somnolence (mostly mild or moderate severity), or, conversely, nervous excitement. Also, in patients taking side effects of the drug, it is not excluded reactions from the gastrointestinal tract:
- abdominal pain,
- a violation of taste sensations.
In addition, when taking possible side effects of the drug:
- swelling of the tongue,
- increased salivation,
- problems with memory,
- the increase in pressure,
- shortness of breath,
- pain in muscles, joints and back,
- noise in the ears
- blood in the urine,
- increase in body weight,
- the change in the number of bilirubin,
Because the drug can cause side effects associated with sedation (especially in excess of the standard dosage), taking the drug should be careful when driving vehicles, complex mechanisms, or performing work requiring concentration.
Cetirizine from the minimum amount of negative drug interactions. It is only known that theophylline delays excretion of cetirizine from the body. While the pharmacokinetics of theophylline is not changed.
To overdose side effects of the drug may increase side effects. First and foremost characterized by the following symptoms:
- urinary retention.
Upon detection of an overdose in the first place, the stomach is washed. It is also helpful to take medication, absorb the contents of the digestive tract – chelators (e.g., activated charcoal tablets). In the presence of life-threatening symptoms symptomatic therapy. Hemodialysis in the case of cetirizine ineffective.
Make Zodak is very simple. If a person has all the signs of allergies, then it is enough one tablet of side effects of the drug (10 mg) per day. This dosage is the same for patients of different ages – children (from 6 years) and adults. It does not change in the case of various forms of Allergy (e.g., in urticaria, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, etc.). Still, the patient takes a pill, syrup or drops for oral administration.
One thing to keep in mind – for children 6-12 years tablet 10 mg it is better to divide into two parts and give half tablets in the morning and evening.
When to take the tablets or syrup – before eating, after eating, or during a meal – not a big deal. The fact that the meal does not affect the completeness of absorption of the drug. That is, regardless of whether the drug is taken during the meal or not, even the slightest fraction of a drug is not lost. However, the meal slows down the absorption of the drug in the blood, and this means that the onset of therapeutic effect will be delayed. Therefore, to achieve a rapid effect, it is best to take the drug before or after eating. Also pills of side effects of the drug should not chew in your mouth, they should be swallowed with a sufficient amount of water or other liquid at room temperature (juice, tea, etc.).
If the tablet is taken once a day, you should do it every time at the same time. For example, if in one day the pill was adopted in the evening, and the next day it should be taken in the evening.
What to do if the usual time of taking the pill was missed? If the date scheduled for the pill, it took a little time (less than half a day), you should take the missed tablet. Otherwise, if your next dose pills there is not much time to take the missed pill is not necessary, but better to wait until your next appointment and take a new tablet (but in no case two).
For patients in older age is not necessary to adjust the dosage. But patients with compromised renal function (elderly and young) require a smaller dosage. This means that they need to take the pill not as often as healthy people. In people with a creatinine clearance of 50-80 ml/min adjustment of the daily dosage (10 mg) is not required. However, they are not recommended to take 1 tablet 1 time a day, and half pill 2 times a day. In creatinine clearance in the range of 30-50 ml/min it is recommended to take Allergy medicine to half tablet side effects of the drug once a day. In creatinine clearance between 10-30 ml/min should take a half pill every two days. A smaller value means the clearance end-stage renal failure. When this condition is to take pills of the side effects of the drug impossible.
In human liver should not reduce the standard dosage. Only in the case if the patient does not tolerate cetirizine due to insufficiency of liver function, the dosage should be reduced in 2 times – up to half a tablet (5 mg) per day.
Instructions for use of tablets side effects of the drug Express
Tablets side effects of the drug Express contains only half the dosage of conventional tablets side effects of the drug (5 mg versus 10 mg). However, the effectiveness of this shape is comparable to the efficiency standard. Thus, for all age groups of patients (over 6 years) is recommended one taking the pill during the day.
When there is insufficient renal function (creatine clearance is in the range of 30-50 ml/min) requires taking the pill one day. In creatinine clearance between 10-30 ml/ should take 1 pill in 2 days. When moderate renal insufficiency (creatinine clearance in the range 50-80 ml/min) you can take tablets according to the standard scheme. Also you should not change the standard pattern with which to take the pills when liver failure.
Children with impaired renal function can be selected individual dose pills.
The application of drops
Drops – dosage form intended for treatment of allergies in children from 1 year and adults. It should be remembered that the pills under the age of 6 years cannot be used.
Drops and pills can be taken regardless of meals. However, drops cannot be swallowed in its pure form, it is necessary to pre-dissolve them in a small amount of water. It’s best to do in the spoon or glass. You can’t take a large amount of fluid that the patient is unable to drink for once (this is especially true for babies).
Approximately 20 drops correspond to 1 ml. Therefore, 20 drops contains 10 mg cetirizine.
Regimen of drops depends on the age of the patient:
- 1-2 years – 5 drops,2 times a day
- 2-6 years – 10 drops once daily, or 5 drops 2 times a day
- 6-12 years: 20 drops once a day or 10 drops twice a day
- children above 12 years and adults – 20 drops once a day.
Thus, a standard daily amount of cetirizine for patients up to 6 years is 5 mg, and over 6 years old – 10 mg. However, in all cases should adhere to the minimum effective dosage. For example, if the number of adult cetirizine 5 mg per day allows to get rid of Allergy symptoms, then you should prefer this option.
If the drops are recommended to take once a day, it is best to do it in the evening.
Treatment drops in children under one year
If the pediatrician has appointed instillation of nose drops breastfeeding the baby, the treatment is carried out according to the following scheme of the drug instilled two times a day drop into each nostril.
Drops inside are as follows:
- up to 3 months – 2 drops
- 3-6 months – 3-4 drops
- 6-12 months – 5 drops
In all cases the drops need to give 1 time a day. They are best added to the milk or baby food. With the best portion of food with the drug to give at the beginning of the feeding, before taking the rest of the food.
Be wary appoint drops to children under one year in the following cases:
- sleep apnea;
- young (under 19 years) maternal age;
- Smoking mothers or nannies caring for the child;
- child falls asleep face down;
- simultaneous reception of a child of oppressive Central nervous system.
The use of syrup
Syrup side effects of the drug intended for the treatment of children older than 2 years. However, they can of course use both adults.
Unlike drops, the syrup does not need to be diluted, it is ready to drink form. Although, it is desirable to wash down the syrup with any liquid – water, tea or juice.
As in the case of drops, regimen syrup the side effects of the drug depend on the age:
- 2-6 years – 5 mg (1 ml) 1 once a day or 2.5 mg (0.5 ml), 2 times a day;
- 6-12 years – 10 mg (2 ml), 1 time per day or 5 mg (1 ml) twice a day;
- children above 12 years and adults – 10 mg (2 ml) once a day.
Thus, the daily amount when taking cetirizine syrup side effects of the drug for children under the age of 6 years is 5 mg (1 ml) for children older than 6 years and adults – 10 mg (2 ml). It should also be recalled that the volume of the scoop, which is equipped with vial side effects of the drug, is exactly 1 ml.
The duration of treatment
How long to take tablets side effects of the drug? It depends on many factors and, first and foremost, ever exposed to the allergen on the body. If the allergic reaction was caused by a single contact with an allergen, the tablets can be taken up to the period when the Allergy will come to naught. If the source of Allergy is unknown, the possible long-term use of funds in a few weeks. It is worth remembering that Zodak is a symptomatic remedy. That is, it will help to reduce the symptoms of allergies but does not affect its cause, and will not increase immunity to a level where it will become immune to most allergens. Therefore, if the allergen effect on a person constantly, then after discontinuation of the tablets allergic reactions will return in all its glory. But this is not evidence that the pill ineffective.