Often with heart problems, excessive fatigue, the physician can assign the patient to Meldonium. This drug is lately on everyone’s lips, however, not everyone knows about what actually constitutes this medicine, as it is dosed and applied in different occasions.
The main application of Meldonium treatment of arrhythmias, tissue hypoxia of the heart muscle and brain. Meldonium belongs to the class of regulators of metabolism.
The drug was created in the 1970-ies of the last century, Latvian chemists. Originally Meldonium used only in veterinary medicine, to accelerate the growth of animals. But then revealed its cardioprotective properties, Meldonium has been used for the treatment of humans. Currently Meldonium (also known under the name of Mildronate) has firmly taken its niche in the domestic market of pharmaceuticals. In Russia Meldonium included in the list of vital medicines.
What is the biochemical mechanism of action of the drug? Meldonium is an analogue of gamma-butirobetaina, the predecessor of the ATP molecule. Meldonium inhibits the synthesis of carnitine is responsible for transport through cell membranes of molecules fatty acids. Meanwhile, this natural process is undesirable in terms of lack of oxygen in the tissues, as this forms a number of toxic substances. Meldonium and prevents their appearance inside the cells. Furthermore, Meldonium increases in the tissues of the number of gamma-butirobetaina, vasodilating properties (due to the acceleration of nitric oxide synthesis), which leads to vasodilation.
Also Meldonium has antiplatelet properties towards platelets and affects the elasticity of red blood cells, stabilizes the transport of ATP molecules in cells. In addition, the drug stimulates the tissues use glycogen for energy production. All of these functions Meldonium is especially important for the heart muscle, whose oxygen demand is particularly high. And this necessity increases many times in those cases when the heart is working with increased intensity. If not enough oxygen, the cells of the myocardium can be damaged. That is why the drug is so popular among those people whose body is regularly subjected to physical stress, first and foremost, the athletes.
Action that produces Meldonium in the body:
- symptoms of excessive stress (mental and physical);
- protection of the heart muscle;
- increase the ability of the myocardium to contraction;
- increased tone of the Central nervous system (CNS);
- the elimination of disorders of the Central nervous system in the treatment of alcoholism;
- protection of the vessel walls;
- reducing the needs of tissue of the heart muscle of oxygen;
- minimizing the consequences of oxygen starvation;
- stimulation of the immune system, increase resistance to infections;
- improved blood circulation in the eye retina.
The substance has a short half-life (4 h), which it must be applied quite often – 2-4 times a day.
Meldonium is accepted as one of the means in complex therapy of diseases associated with insufficiency of oxygen in the tissues. First and foremost is coronary heart disease. Also Meldonium used:
- during the recovery period after a heart attacks and strokes;
- in chronic heart failure;
- when pain in the heart caused by dishormonal cardiomyopathy;
- with alcohol withdrawal;
- in extreme physical fatigue;
- for rehabilitation after surgery.
Myocardial Meldonium prevents the development of necrosis, thereby reducing the recovery time of the patient.
Doctors also often prescribe Meldonium athletes for faster recovery of physical shape after training. However, here it should be noted that starting in 2016, in the world of professional sport the use of drug is not allowed, and this may be followed by disqualification of the athlete. However, in Amateur sports the drug is still used, and such a decision only fueled interest in him from many people, sometimes far from the sport.
In addition, the drug is used for the treatment of certain diseases of the eye:
- retinopathy caused by hypertension or diabetes;
- acute blood flow disorders of the retina;
- hemorrhage into the vitreous and surrounding tissues ;
- blood clots in the blood vessels of the retina.
The drug is produced in capsules, containing 250 or 500 mg of active substance. Sometimes incorrectly referred to as capsules tablets. Also pharmacies available solution for parenteral or parabulbarno (to the eye) introduction. 1 ml solution contains 100 mg of the drug. The solution comes in vials of 5 mg. in addition, there is the syrup, which contains Meldonium.
Instructions for dosage and application of drugs
Standard single dosage with the drug in capsules is 250-500 mg And the daily dosage is determined individually based on the specific disease.
Usually with cardiac diseases, dysfunction of blood circulation in the brain is recommended 500-1000 mg per day. Course duration is 6 weeks. The syndrome of withdrawal symptoms it is recommended to take 2000 mg for 4 doses per night, chronic overloads of 1000 mg for 4 doses.
When stabilized angina therapy dosage is 250 mg 3 times a day. The medication must be taken in capsules. The course duration is 4-6 weeks.
People involved in sport or serious physical activity, it is recommended 15-20 mg/kg once a day. It is best to take the medicine half an hour before an intense workout.
The greatest efficiency has a combination therapy with a solution and capsules. Below are possible examples of the use of this combination under various diagnoses.
In case of overload, rehabilitation after surgery prescribe one capsule of 250 mg 2-4 times a day. Alternatively, you can use intramuscular 2 times a day to 0.5 g. the Duration of therapy is 10-14 days. After 2-3 weeks, can repeat the course.
Myocardial infarction and angina unstable type recommended injection intravenously 500-1000 mg once a day. In the future, go to the reception of one capsule (250 mg) 2 times a day. Subsequently, a transition to the reception 2 times a week.
In chronic heart failure necessary intravenously injection. Similarly introduced 500-1000 mg (once a day). Or you can enter 500 mg intramuscularly twice a day. These procedures should be carried out 10-14 days. After this time the patient can go on taking the capsules 500 mg to be taken in the morning. The total course duration of 4-6 weeks.
When pain in the heart caused by degeneration of the myocardium, the drug is first introduced intramuscularly or intravenously in the same way as in chronic heart failure. After 10-14 days, the drug is given in capsules of 250 mg morning and evening. The reception lasts for 12 days.
In acute circulatory disturbance of the brain (ischemic stroke): the drug is administered by injection 500 mg. Course of treatment – 10 days. The tool then is taken in capsule form 500 mg once a day for 2-3 weeks.
The treatment of chronic disorders of cerebral circulation is 2-3 weeks. This may be selected parenteral administration of 500 mg 1 time per day or capsules 250 mg (frequency of administration depends on the severity of the patient’s condition).
The length of treatment when the abstinence syndrome is 7-10 days. Shown taking one capsule of 500 mg four times daily or twice parenteral input 1000 mg.
Parabulbarno in the introduction, it is recommended to use 0.5 ml per day.
The latter technique it is desirable to produce a not too late dinner time to avoid sleep disturbances.
With parenteral forms of medicine recommended amount of medication that should be administered during the day is 250-1000 mg.
Usually, the medication is well tolerated. However, in some cases it is not excluded some types of side effects. It can be allergic reactions, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. It is also possible headaches, drop in blood pressure, tachycardia, nervous excitement.
Overdose headache, tachycardia, severe pressure drop, dizziness, weakness.
The medicine should not be used during pregnancy and lactation. Capsules and solution are not allowed in children (under 18). The reason for the ban is that in these cases the safety of the drug has not been proven.
Medication in the form of syrup is permitted for children from the age of 12.
In addition, the drug should not be taken during increased intracranial pressure. In disorders of the kidneys and the liver there is a slowdown in the withdrawal of funds from the body, therefore, to apply the medicine should under similar conditions under the supervision of a physician.
Be wary appoint the medicine concomitantly with antihypertensive and vasodilators, as in this case, the potential for serious pressure drop, tachycardia.