From this disease, vaccinations are carried out in many countries. Hepatitis can cause many other serious diseases, such as cirrhosis, cholestasis, liver cancer, polyarthritis, liver failure, etc.
Hepatitis B is now found in so many people, if an infant encounters this disease, the chance that its fragile organism can withstand this test is negligible. Given the difficulty of treatment and the serious consequences of the disease, hepatitis B vaccine is usually given to newborns on the first day of their life.
Despite the fact that this infection is able to enter the body only through blood or sexual contact. The likelihood that a child can become infected is not so small. This can happen anywhere – when visiting a dentist, during a fight, a crumb can find a used syringe, etc.
Vaccination against hepatitis can be carried out in three ways:
- Standard. In this case, the first vaccination takes place in the maternity hospital; the second vaccine against hepatitis is given to the newborn every month and the third every six months.
- Fast. Such a scheme is necessary for babies who have a high risk of contracting hepatitis. It allows you to develop immunity very quickly. It is performed after birth, after about 12 hours, per month, two per year.
- Emergency. This scheme is used for the most rapid production of immunity, usually used before operations. In this case, vaccination is carried out at birth, when the baby is one week old, three weeks old and one year old.
If the vaccination in the maternity hospital was not carried out, its terms can be chosen arbitrarily, but after the first vaccination one of the schemes is observed. Subject to all schedules, the action of the vaccine lasts for 22 years.
Adverse reactions from this vaccination are rare, it is usually tolerated painlessly and easily. After vaccination, redness or slight inflammation may occur at the injection site, sometimes the temperature rises, there is mild weakness and general malaise, rarely allergic reactions, which are manifested by redness of the skin and itching. Such manifestations are considered to be the norm.
Complications after vaccination are even rarer and usually occur while disregarding contraindications. Complications include urticaria, aggravation of allergies, anaphylactic shock, erythema nodosum. There are many rumors that the hepatitis B vaccine can lead to neuralgic disorders, but doctors categorically deny this.
- acute infectious diseases (in such cases, vaccination is done only when the baby recovers);
- signs of primary immunodeficiency;
- small weight of the child (up to two kilograms);
- yeast allergy (ordinary baking);
- a strong negative reaction to an earlier injection.
To do a baby vaccination immediately, later or completely refuse – only parents. No one can compel you to get vaccinated; today, doctors leave the final decision to their parents. Such a choice is very difficult and imposes a great responsibility on fathers and mothers, but it is necessary to make it. The best option would be to ensure the health of the crumbs, visit an immunologist and a good pediatrician, and already on the basis of their recommendations to draw conclusions about the feasibility of vaccination.
Pros and cons of vaccinations for newborns
Now in civilized countries there are practically no dangerous outbreaks of the epidemic, and most doctors are convinced that this is largely due to vaccinations. Of course, the vaccine is not able to protect completely from a particular disease, but if it does occur, it will pass in the mildest possible form and without possible complications.
The body of the newborn is still very weak and therefore it is much more difficult for it to fight infections with its own than it is for an adult. Vaccines are designed to protect young children from serious diseases that can be very dangerous. They contain very little infectious material. Once in the baby’s body, it stimulates the production of antibodies, with the result that when the infection is re-injected, the disease does not develop at all or is mild. Thus, parents, giving consent to the vaccination, although not completely, but protect the baby from the development of serious diseases.
Very often, the introduction of a vaccine, the children’s body responds with a reaction that parents often confuse with complications. After vaccination, the child may become sluggish, his appetite may be gone, his body temperature will rise, etc. This reaction is considered normal, because the body produces immunity to a particular disease.
Unfortunately, after the introduction of vaccines are possible and complications. Although negative consequences occur extremely rarely they are the main reason for opponents of vaccinations.
As arguments that should be the basis for refusing vaccinations, they also put forward the following:
- The proposed vaccines contain many harmful and sometimes even hazardous substances.
- Vaccinations are not as well protected from disease, as doctors say.
- Only a baby born on vaccines is not really needed, because for them the risk of catching an infection is much lower than the risk of developing complications, especially for hepatitis vaccination.
- For the first year and a half, according to the standard vaccination calendar, the baby should be given nine vaccinations. And the first of them is done on the day the crumbs are born. The vaccine inhibits the immune system for 4-6 months, therefore, the crumb has been in the post-vaccination period for a year and a half, and therefore is not quite healthy.
Vaccinations of newborns in the maternity hospital
What vaccinations make a newborn in the hospital is not a secret to anyone – the first for hepatitis B, the second for tuberculosis (BCG). They are considered one of the most dangerous. In this case, the likelihood of complications is increased by the fact that the picture of the state of health of the newly born crumbs is still quite vague. Therefore, there can be no certainty whether the infant body will be able to cope with even the smallest doses of infection.
In this regard, many experts recommend the first vaccinations, only after the baby is one month old. This time is enough to see how the crumb adapts, gains weight, whether he is prone to allergies or not.
To write a waiver of vaccinations in the hospital every woman can, with no consequences whatsoever for her and the baby. Subsequently, they can be done in a children’s hospital. However, before finally deciding to refuse, it is worth weighing the pros and cons, as well as to figure out what these vaccinations are for and what consequences they may have.
Vaccination against tuberculosis for newborns
Every year, the disease causes the death of more than 2 million people. It is provoked by mycobacteria, the species of which exists very much. No one is immune from infection with tuberculosis, regardless of the state of health and living conditions. This disease is highly contagious and can affect many organs. Since babies do not have immunity to her after birth, vaccination is carried out in the first days of their life.
Unfortunately, vaccinations of BCG children are not able to completely prevent infection and prevent the development of some forms of the disease. But they completely protect children from the most severe types of tuberculosis that can lead to death. After vaccination, immunity is maintained up to 7 years. To determine the presence or absence of tuberculosis infection in the body, a mantoux vaccine is given. Children do it every year. Repeated vaccination against tuberculosis can be carried out at 7 and 14 years old, its necessity is determined using the same manta test.
Newborn vaccination is usually carried out three days after birth. The injection is made in the left shoulder. The reaction to vaccination against tuberculosis does not occur immediately, but only after some time, an average of six weeks. At the injection site, a semblance of a small abscess is first formed, which has a crust in the middle, then a scar is formed.
Contraindications to BCG :
- The presence of negative reactions to BCG in close relatives and other newborns in the family.
- Immunodeficiency states in a child (both congenital and acquired).
- CNS lesions.
- HIV in the mother.
- The presence of tumors.
Vaccination should be postponed:
- With the prematurity of the baby.
- In the presence of hemolytic disease of the newborn.
- In infectious diseases.
- With skin diseases.
- Acute pathologies (presence of intrauterine infection, systemic pathologists of the skin, neurological disorders, etc.).
The most serious complication of such a vaccination is infection of the infant, however, such cases are extremely rare, usually, while ignoring contraindications to its implementation. Sometimes, at the injection site, subcutaneous infiltrates, ulcers or keloids can form, osteomyelitis, inflammation of the lymph nodes, osteitis develop.