Among the pathologies, accompanied by lesion of mucous shell of the nasal passages, the destruction of tissue is relatively rare. Usually chronic atrophic rhinitis diagnosed in adults in old age.
Affects persons older than 60-65 years to geriatric changes in the body as a whole. In more youthful and childhood pathology is a consequence of inappropriate use of vasoconstrictor drugs used for the relief of irinotecan (cold).
Also adverse factors that can cause chronic atrophic rhinitis can be:
- unfavorable ecological situation in the place of residence of the person;
- occupational hazards in particular work at bacteriological labs, for chemical and metallurgical production;
- Smoking, including passive, when the prospective patient is in the room together with smokers;
- burns of the upper respiratory tract;
- chronic infections and inflammatory processes.
This page describes the main methods of treatment of disease that will allow to get rid of unpleasant manifestations. Treatment is possible only with the aim to inhibit the pathogenic process, a full recovery is not observed even in complex therapy. You can see the symptoms of atrophic rhinitis in the photo illustrating the pathological changes occurring in the structures of the tissues of the mucous membranes:
Prevention Oseni – the guarantee of health!
One of the most common forms of atrophic rhinitis is stinking cold, which in medical terminology is referred to as ozena. This is a pretty unpleasant condition that causes the patient to continuously irrigate the nasal passages. That, however, does not bring any relief, because the odor gives vslushivalsya epithelium and nekrotizirovannye tissues, which decompose the mean trophic disorders of blood supply of the mucous membrane.
Prevention Oseni important in any type of rhinitis, as it is the key to the health of the nose and absence of predisposing factors to the development of atrophy of the mucous membranes. Among the preventive measures, is called proper nutrition and timely treatment of diseases of the digestive tract. The fact that approximately 68 % of patients with similar diagnoses detected by the associated pathology of the mucous membrane of the stomach and intestines. Accordingly, one of the probable reasons for Oseni doctors call chronic diseases of the esophagus, stomach and intestines, such as atrophic gastritis, ulcerative esophagitis, colitis and enterocolitis. huge role played by the stagnation of bile, cholecystitis, hepatitis, and steatosis.
In children risk factors may be living in disadvantaged social situation, provoking a shortage of nutrients and vitamins in the daily diet. Also a certain role of hormonal disturbances in the course of puberty. In this case, the first symptoms appear in adolescence.
Vascularization can be broken under the influence of injury, in which there is a reduced trophic on the background of slowing of the blood supply. In a domestic environment it is necessary to avoid fractures of the nose, children should be taught habits “to examine the nasal passages fingers.
Surgery of the facial skeleton can also be complicated by atrophy of the mucous membranes. After adenotomy, eliminate curvature of the nasal septum, removal of a hemostatic tampon, removal of polyps should comply with physician-recommended prevention of postoperative complications.
How is chronic atrophic rhinitis?
In the development of pathology stands out the external factor of unfavorable influence. Suffer with persons who have a huge amount of time in areas with dry and polluted air.
As a result, can run the following mechanisms of transformation of the mucosa
- the endocrine is influenced by hormonal malfunction of the thyroid, the pancreas;
- triggered by the autonomic nervous shocks, exhaustion of Central nervous system;
- the genetic programme is activated in the presence of predisposing factors (if one of the parents has a similar problem);
- trophic develops when the violation of the blood;
- infectious bacterial transformation is the result of a prolonged inflammatory process with the growth of substitution of connective tissue.
Among the most frequently diagnosed pathogens is called Klebsiella, open Abel-Leuenberger. It only affects individuals with a weakened immune system and may be associated with fungal infections.
In order to understand the development of chronic atrophic rhinitis, it is necessary to allocate its basic forms. It can be localized to isolated or generalized, common to all divisions of the nasal passages. In the first case is the theory of trophic or infectious pathogenesis. Mucous cells do not get enough nutrition and blood supply, it begins the process of atrophy and replacement by connective tissue. Common in the diffuse form there is a total sloughing of the epidermis due to the adverse factor disturbing the internal environment. Most often it is a complication of diseases of the digestive tract or long-term Smoking.
Clinical diagnosis and symptoms of atrophic rhinitis
Conducted clinical diagnostic pathology allows you to identify probable cause and recommend appropriate treatment. It should be noted that the symptoms of atrophic rhinitis at the initial stage of the disease have a number of significant differences from osiny.
These include the following symptoms:
- the formation of crusts and films in the nasal passages, making breathing difficult;
- permanent dryness of the mucous membranes;
- the minimum separation of the mucous secretion without any foreign smell;
- primarily breathing through the mouth, pallor of the epidermis;
- complaints of dizziness, weakness, increased irritability.
If you attempt to clean the nasal cavity may be local bleeding, which stops very quickly without assistance.
The main clinical symptom is a total reduction of sense of smell, patients are unable to distinguish odors, sometimes even very sharp.
The symptoms of atrophic rhinitis under Oseni may be visible to the naked eye:
- there is a gradual extension of the nasal passages;
- visible pallor of the mucous membrane within;
- there is a constant purulent, greenish secretion, with putrid odor;
- patients perceive this unpleasant smell quite clearly.
With the development of pathology kliniska diagnosis becomes more apparent. When rhinoscopy anterior visible trophic disorders and a significant expansion of the chambers of the nasal passages.
Affected mucous membranes possible to distinguish several stages:
- first is their thinning;
- then there is granulomatous replacement with a small temporary signs of hypertrophy;
- at the last stage, the decay and destruction of bone tissue and replacement by connective tissue cells (you may experience a significant change in the shape of the nose).
If you don’t pursue a specific treatment, then gradually atrophy spreads to the mucous membranes of the throat, trachea and bronchi. Occurs painful dry cough, hoarseness, shortness of breath and signs of respiratory distress. Deformity of the nose occurs most often in the form of a duck beak.
In clinical diagnosis the importance of radiographs of the facial bones, where there can be a visible process of destruction. Also assigned microscopic studies of bacterial smear from the nose. In identifying Klebsiella assigned to antibacterial treatment.
View symptoms of chronic atrophic rhinitis on the photos is presented as the visible and hidden symptoms:
Methods of treatment used in otolaryngology
Used in modern ENT treatments for chronic atrophic rhinitis and Oseni include both measures aimed at addressing the causes of the pathology and symptomatic effects with the aim of eliminating unpleasant symptoms.
As for the pathology of protracted, it is important to achieve long-term remission and to try to restore blood flow to the tissues. To moisturize the mucous membranes used sprays and ointments (Naftalan, white mercury, lanolin), sea buckthorn oil. They help to eliminate dryness and odor. To stimulate the allocation of the mucous secret recommended daily irrigation with Lugol’s solution by dilution with water to obtain a 0.5% concentration. Recently excellent indicators of elimination of violations of the trophic has laser therapy.
Twice a year is recommended restorative treatment. This purpose is assigned a course of injections of vitamin preparations, stimulators of tissue growth. Positive impact has a long (not less than 30 consecutive days) vacation on the coast.