07.05.2021

Abuse of cathinone: the development of an addiction and treatment

The alkaloid cathinone (norephedrine) belongs to a class of psychotropic compounds amphetamine-type. The raw material for this substance is African shrubs kata. In the Russian Federation legally attributed to the “I” List, which includes the potent psychoactive substances, including and related drugs.

Cathinone is less toxic and its effect is expressed to a lesser extent than amphetamine. The application of this alkaloid causes addiction.

Get stuff in the handicraft way from medicines containing ephedrine. In a makeshift drug is added potassium permanganate, and vinegar. It manganese is the cause of a special type Kalinikova encephalopathy – severe complications of this kind of dependence.

General information

Kata – historic and ancient plant species that were used by inhabitants of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula for thousands of years. Currently, about 20 million representatives of these regions are still “chew” it to enhance the mood and improve physical health. Especially receiving popular kata in the 2nd half of the day, when a person is tired and sensation of hunger, this plant fixes with great success. Kata in these countries is not prohibited. So we can often see leaves of khat drivers, teachers, doctors and other professions that affect people. Habit of the use of khat spread to other countries with more stringent laws in relation to this psychoactive substance.

On the background of the action of cathinone in humans, increased mood, he felt a surge of strength and energy. The constant use of this drug causes addiction, and requires constant increasing doses.

The mechanism of drug effects

Cathinone alter normal metabolism and the functionality of the nervous neurotransmitters – dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, serotonin. Cathinone is included in the chain of transmission of nerve impulses and contributes to their activation. This is due to the primary stimulating effect on the Central nervous system. Cathinone has an effect on the peripheral nervous system.

What effects causes cathinone, methods of application of substances

Cathinone is introduced in the usual dose of about 200 mg, injectable. Take it through the nose (intranasally), through the mouth (orally).

The classic method of admission: is rolling plant “ball”, laying the cheeks and chewing. The leaf juice is released, it goes into the body cathinone. The absorption occurs through the mucosa of the cheeks, stomach and small intestine.

“The arrival” from the intravenous method of administration is highly rich in strength and variety of sensations – “a kick in the head”. Simultaneously, the effect lasts for about 4 – 5 hours. The peak effect occurs within 1.5 – 2 hours after the start of the application.

The patient is experiencing:

  • expressed a sense of joy – the euphoria with the gift of gab;
  • excessive physical and mental activity;
  • the desire of communicating with people and active participation in all topics of conversation;
  • an excessive need to philosophize, philosophize;
  • a pleasant tingling sensation in the skin;
  • increased libido and sexual arousal;
  • suppression of desires meal;
  • increased blood pressure, increased heart rate and breathing;
  • the relaxation of smooth muscles bodies;
  • severe dryness of the mucous membranes of the mouth and nose;
  • visual disturbances – double vision, fuzzy vision of the world.
Syndrome

Very soon, with regular use of cathinone, the patient develops withdrawal syndrome with elements of abstinence effects.

It appears:

  • severe lethargy, apathy, depression;
  • headache and dramatically reduced background mood;
  • increased irritability;
  • partial or complete loss of appetite;
  • insomnia;
  • expressed desire to take the dose, which occupies all the attention of the patient.
Forming mental and physical dependence

Some drug treatment and deny the development of physical dependence from abuse of cathinone. But the mental craving is available to all patients.

After the expiration of drugs (intoxication), taking his man in a very short time begins to form severe discomfort with the above-described complaints of the syndrome. The strength of these unpleasant feelings growing together with the experience of the consumption of cathinone.

Painful condition causes patients to increase the dose and frequency of intake of narcotic substances. Formed a hard version dependency.

In injection form the number of injections 1 – 2 times is increased to 3 to 8 times a day. Certain individuals, the reception frequency of the drug reaches 25 per day.

Important: craving for cathinone is so strong that any independent attempts to get away from dependence without treatment is almost fruitless.

In very rare cases, patients are able to do it yourself, and that, in the initial stages of the disease.

Periodic use of substances very quickly turns into a systematic, and even with a fairly weak narcotic action. It also causes a rapid build-up of dose and frequency reception.

It should be noted that the price of the drug is low enough. On this basis, the consumers of cathinone often become needy and antisocial people who have no motivation to healthy way of life. They prefer to live today, under “high”, not thinking about the consequences and the future.

Overdose

Getting excessive drugs may be accompanied by rapid development of decompensation. In mild cases, patients develop sensory perception disorders. These episodes pass on their own within 3-4 hours. In more serious cases, blood pressure falls, the consciousness on the background of illusions and hallucinations fades away quickly, and there was a cardiac arrest. Condition that requires immediate resuscitation.

Complications of long-term abuse of cathinone

Regular intake injecting increasing doses of the substance causes malignant variant of toxic encephalopathy. The initial symptoms of this disease fails the first time to remove the new introduction of the next dose. But the disease progresses. Contained a controlled drug, the potassium permanganate becomes a cause of deterioration of neurological disorders that appear after a few months of regular anesthesia.

The patient develops pathological problems associated with:

  • a gait disturbance (staggering), the sudden change of pace of walking, difficulty stopping and discoordination;
  • speech problems – unclear pronunciation and enchantment. The voice becomes expressionless and quiet;
  • a gradual progression of severe motor disorders (difficulty of any type of movement);
  • trembling of the fingers;
  • depletion of movements of facial muscles (mask-like face);

At the initial examination the appearance of patients gives the impression of their mental inferiority. But the peculiarity of manganese encephalopathy is just minor damage intellectual capacities, with preservation of the critical attitude. From the clinical point of view this kind of complications like the picture of Parkinson’s disease.

During the inspection of the limbs Kalinovich injecting drug users draw attention to “the road” – the specific level of injection of the drug. Addicts it is necessary to introduce a substance into the femoral and axillary veins. It is in these places attract the attention of cicatricial changes, which are called “mines”.

The presence of injection marks helps the doctor during a primary diagnosis to distinguish casinonow dependence on Parkinson’s disease. The lack of withdrawal complaints allows us to differentiate addiction to cathinone from opioid addiction.

Please note: as a result of the developing of the disease the patient is incapacitated.

Treatment of abuse of cathinone

Overdose requires intensive intensive detoxification therapy (Glucose, Reosorbilakt, Reamberin) the toxicology Department.

Therapy based on outpatient, inpatient or in specialized narcological departments. The absence of clear withdrawal symptoms allows you to focus on healing depending on psychotherapy.

Application of methods of suggestion, persuasion, hypnosis, rational therapy, cognitive and behavioral psychotherapy help to remove the psychological dependence and form of installation on a healthy lifestyle.

In the presence of encephalopathy in patients prescribed:

  • sulfa drugs to remove the toxins (unitiol, thiosulfate);
  • nootropics (piracetam, nootropil). These medications are recommended for a long time and in large doses. Only if such a scheme can partially have a positive effect on the injured brain.
  • medication, improves cerebral blood circulation (Cinnarizine, Cavinton);
  • tranquilizers to stabilize the psyche;
  • hypnotics, for normalization of sleep;
  • anticonvulsant, when paroxysmal attacks;
  • vitamin complex;
  • physical therapy (physical therapy, hydrotherapy, curative mud).

Despite active therapy to cure these patients is not possible. All that is possible to achieve some improvement in their condition, and slowing the progress of illness.

The prognosis of abuse of cathinone adverse. Patients often become disabled, even when adequate therapy.

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