25.01.2021

The abuse of MDMA (ecstasy): characteristics, consequences, treatment based on

MDMA (Methylenedioxymethamphetamine) is a semi-synthetic chemical compound within the group of amphetamines, possessing psychoactive properties. In the composition of the tablets it was called – Ecstasy (Molly, Adam, etc.) Is a narcotic substance popular and common among the youth of most countries of the world, it can be called one of the leaders among the “club” of psychoactive substances. MDMA in popularity is third after cannabinoids and cocaine.

In the international scientific community and the media still debates regarding the harm caused by MDMA. The drug is referred to the group of drugs that are taken only for the purposes of pleasure and officially in medicine do not apply. In comparison with other drugs Ecstasy is the most harmless, but has a high neurotoxic properties. This quality has led to the fact that in most countries, its production, dissemination and application is included in the category of criminal offences.

Please note: special danger of MDMA is combined with other drugs.

Research and the spread of MDMA

The year of the appearance of MDMA is considered to be 1912. The German chemist A. koles synthesized a new substance when trying to find effective drug used to improve blood clotting. Psychoactive properties of the substance were detected only in 50-ies of XX century. Epidemic drug starts with 1976, after the work of the American chemist A. Shulgin.

A number of doctors began to use MDMA in the practice of psychotherapy to enhance the effect of suggestibility in patients. After 1980, this drug was used by more than 1000 doctors of different hospitals of the West. The agent gets one of its names – “Adam” in connection with its properties, contributing to the emergence of human state of openness, of innocence, simplicity and naivety. Doctors practicing the use of “Adam” did not make of his sensational statements. One of the reasons “stealth” – the fear of the repetition of the prohibition of LSD, which became the subject of General “cult”, going beyond clinical application.

But to keep the “secret” effects of MDMA, the scientists failed and the drug in a large number of “rushed” into the world of youth club subculture. The first victim of the new drug was America, it appears the name is “Ecstasy”. Then the medication gets in Europe, and becomes the property of the broad masses throughout the world.

The fight against drugs begins in the United States since 1984 on the initiative of the DEA – the American organization, which is fighting with addiction problems. After numerous political and scientific debates involving supporters and opponents, MDMA was banned. Subsequently, the ban spread to other countries.

But the measures proved ineffective. Ecstasy filled the drug market, and became psihosindrom music acid house, coming from England around the world. Tens of thousands of young people were active consumers of the drug, by displacing the intake of alcohol and Smoking cigarettes. Clandestine laboratories set process of Ecstasy flow method. Pills purchased your “view” with a specific brand.

The popularity of the drug grew until 2003. There are new “versions” of the drug, which varied ingredients. After a series of scandals in the United States, a law was passed 2003 the RAVE anti-Ecstasy. But the particular use of it has brought.

With the end of 2016, American management under the supervision of the drug administration (FDA) gave permission for clinical testing of MDMA with the participation of 230 patients. Their results will decide on the possible inclusion of this compound in the official list of approved medicines for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease, autism, stress, etc.

Please note: in recent years the number of users of Ecstasy in the world was reached from 18 to 28 million.

What produce MDMA

The raw material for the narcotic drug is MDMA oil safrole, which is derived from the root bark of the Sassafras shrub of the Lauraceae family of plants. For the production of drugs used vanilla, piperonal, catechol. Synthesis of narcotic drug does not require expensive equipment and special laboratories.

The types of abuse of MDMA and doses

Produced drug used in the form:

  • Ecstasy pills;
  • powders “Molly” and “Mandy”;
  • capsules;
  • solutions;
  • crystals Smoking marijuana (rarely).
  • the injection of a substance into the nasal passages;
  • injections;
  • rectal method.

The average single dose of 120 mg. It may range from 50 to 1000 mg. In recent years, the cases of use of combined drugs (with other drugs). Therefore, drug effects and side effects may differ greatly from the action of pure Ecstasy.

The most common method of using MDMA on weekends, 3-4 times a month. Sometimes during the week, the person taking the drug, complements the current dose.

The mechanism of action and the formation of dependence

The effects of Ecstasy begins to unfold in a half-hour after ingestion. The drug has a powerful effect on the mediators of the nervous system, in particular the release of large amounts of serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, acetylcholine. MDMA itself is able to bind to receptors, which operate on these mediators, and to cause narcotic effects.

The peak effect occurs within 2 hours. 3-7 hours after ingestion, on the background of symptomatic plateau, there comes a gradual decline in the manifestations of action. Residual phenomena can be observed for 10 days after dosing.

Physical dependence MDMA does not cause, but mental – enough known.

The manifestation of drug action

The person taking Ecstasy, falls into the power of mental changes. This drug combines the action of the hallucinogen, empathogen, psychostimulant, and psychedelic.

Clearly marked with the following signs:

  • emancipation and the ease of establishing relations. Under the influence of drugs people who took it, easily comes into contact with all of them. The friendliness and openness come to the fore, although there is some violation of the functions of speech;
  • existing systems, causing the closure of communication go, “uncoil”. Took Ecstasy does not feel any internal barriers;
  • growing demand for human communication and attention;
  • events and other people’s problems become the object of strong feelings (empathy);
  • in the shower there is an increasing sense of inner harmony, the world seems perfect and devoid of flaws;
  • perception becomes brightness, brilliance;
  • the predominate emotion of joy, of elevated mood.

Note: In some cases, instead of euphoria can develop negative manifestations.

Psychotic effects are accompanied by certain physiological characteristics.

Often arise:

  • visual disturbances of perception (split and blurred);
  • dryness of the mucous membranes of the mouth and nose;
  • arrhythmias caused by increased cardiac activity, accelerated breathing, increased blood pressure;
  • loss of appetite with nausea;
  • sweating and loss of body fluids;
  • tingling of the skin, “goose bumps”;
  • strabismus, dilated pupils;
  • problems urination;
  • discoordination motor abilities;
  • spasm of chewing muscles and teeth grinding;
  • the marked increase in body temperature.
Syndromes of cancellation and side effects after MDMA abuse

The abolition of MDMA after a long reception accompanied by a number of pathological changes in the body.

The most characteristic are the following:

  • the apparent loss of body weight, physical and mental exhaustion;
  • apathy, depression, anger and irritability;
  • expressed anxiety;
  • obsessive fears and thoughts;
  • the inability to concentrate, loss of memory;
  • the development of hallucinatory experiences.

Prolonged abuse of MDMA can cause liver disease, bleeding in the retina, hypertensive heart disease, complicated by a stroke and heart attack. Effect on the blood characterized by the development of clotting problems.

Amid the misuse of MDMA comes hyponatremia (loss of sodium ions). The condition causes constant thirst and excessive water requirements. The patient can develop “water poisoning”. Developed the condition causes the development of kidney failure, cardiovascular problems, metabolic disorders.

Note: among the causes of death of those who abused Ecstasy hyponatremia in the first place.

The increase in body temperature can reach critical numbers. Or hyperpyrexia (temperature rise above 42° C) leads to failure of major organs, leading to death. This reason ranks second among fatal cases of ingestion of MDMA.

An Overdose Of Ecstasy

An overdose of Ecstasy – another cause of death after hyponatremia and hyperthermia. The usual single dose can cause severe complications. Specific values, which can cause death from overdose does not exist. This dose is very variable. It is generally accepted that it is the intake quantities range from 50 to 100 mg per 1 kg of body weight.

Some people have hereditary increased sensitivity to MDMA, which can lead to complications.

Rarely, on the background of large doses may develop an allergic reaction that occur with angioedema, anaphylactic shock.

Treatment for abuse of MDMA

Rid of dependence on Ecstasy is carried out in specialized narcological hospitals. The emphasis is on psychotherapeutic forms of healing.

Important: in acute forms of overdose patients in need of specialized detoxification therapy, which is carried out at the toxicology departments in the intensive care unit, or intensive care.

Emergency measures in hyperthermic syndrome is aimed at reducing temperature.

Water poisoning is removed by intravenous injection of saline solutions.

In psychotherapy participate narcologists, psychiatrists, psychologists.

The treatment is carried out according to the plan, which includes:

  • motivational talks, whose task is to explain to patients the nature of the disease, the condition which has developed as a result of prolonged anesthesia. Motivation stimulates the desire to live a healthy life;
  • suggestion and persuasion. Rational therapy is conducted individually, group methods and with the involvement of relatives;
  • the use of hypnotherapyallows you to remove subliminal pathological lesions of the disease, to replace them by forming new active centres in the brain that will dominate the mind of man;
  • kodirovanie methods, which are based on suppression of possible mental craving. Encoding involves the formation of a plant, which, if you try to use MDMA will cause a sharp rejection of the drug on a physical level.

After completing the basic course of treatment in the rehab and the best option for the patient will continue recovery in rehab center is recommended.

Forecast when properly conducted treatment, we should expect favorable. It is important to prevent recurrence of the abuse of MDMA and the replacement of this kind of dependence on another. Prophylactic patients recommended periodic visits to the psychiatrist and psychologist, and psychological courses and trainings.

Latin Alexander, medical columnist

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3 thoughts on “The abuse of MDMA (ecstasy): characteristics, consequences, treatment based on

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