Enamel is a thin covering of the tooth, which is 96% composed of inorganic substances, and 2-3% water, organics account for only 1% of the enamel. Tooth enamel is the strongest structure of the human body and has the lowest water content in the composition.
The inorganic part of the enamel is represented mainly hydroxyapatite – natural calcium phosphates, which account for 90% of its structure.
Saliva contains a large number of calcium ions and phosphate ions, and washing the teeth and protects them from destruction and restores the mineral composition of the enamel.
In some parts of the tooth thickness of the enamel layer can reach 2-2,5 mm. Behind the enamel is less durable layer of dentin, which is more subject to destruction by pathogenic bacteria. It is therefore important to keep the enamel healthy and intact for the prevention of caries and other dental diseases.
The symptoms of fracture of the enamel
With all the strength of tooth enamel, it is not absolutely invulnerable and vulnerable to destruction under the influence of some factors. Thinning and enamel defects lead to the deterioration of the teeth, increase the risk of carious destruction of all tissues that do not have such strength. Such a situation is dangerous also because enamel cannot self-regenerate, and restore its mineral composition is possible only by artificial means.
Enamel thickness varies in different parts of the tooth surface. So, on the chewing surfaces of the layer reaches two millimeters, gradually estancias closer to the root of the tooth. Chewing surface of the tooth most in need of this solid surface, as it accounts for a large functional load. However, basal parts of the tooth remain the most vulnerable area, often the reproduction of microorganisms causing caries, begins from here.
After destruction of enamel, pathogenic microorganisms easily moving deeper into the tooth, the pulp, the more the dentin (the second, after the enamel layer of tissue) is porous and relatively soft structure. Formed carious cavity, which often reach such proportions that to restore the tooth is not enough fillings, and you need dentures.
To determine the damage to the enamel at an early stage and to prevent dental disease is inevitable following the destruction of the protective layer of tooth enamel, it is possible by the following symptoms:
- Tooth sensitivity, which manifests itself in a painful reaction pressing a sharp pain in response to exposure to cold, hot food and drinks, sour fruit juices and mechanical load during chewing;
- Strengthening of pain with minimal irritation – pain accompanies even the process of breathing even the air of normal temperature;
- Staining of the enamel – it is gray lost luster;
- The appearance of stains on the enamel, its yellowing;
- Carious lesions of the tooth, at an early stage where its surface becomes malawinet and becomes rough; in the later stages appear carious cavity and tooth darkens.
What factors provoke damage to the enamel?
Damaged enamel will result in the following factors:
- Damage to the enamel, thinning and cracks on its surface could be a sign of lack of minerals, fluoride and calcium, as well as lack of vitamins;
- The reverse situation, in which fluorine in the body receives too much causes fluorosis, which also worsens the condition of the enamel, causing stains on its surface.
- Bleaching treatments for the teeth of both professional and homemade with the use of soda, fruit acids and hydrogen peroxide also thinner enamel and increase tooth sensitivity to external stimuli, until the painful reaction to the inhaled air.
- Genetic predisposition – enamel often damaged in people who do a layer of thin by nature;
- Poor hygiene – toothbrush increased rigidity to the teeth with thinning enamel, the lack of habit to rinse your mouth after meals and brushing teeth twice a day.
- Products of a diet rich in acids such as citrus and other acidic fruits. Acid with daily use gradually thinner enamel, washing out from her minerals, which is a prerequisite to its destruction.
- Excessive mechanical load on the teeth — too solid food, in need of thorough chewing, a habit to open bottles and crack nuts with their teeth, snapping seeds; the enamel can deteriorate in people who bite their nails;
- Smoking, chocolate and other sweets, alcohol, sweet drinks and coffee in large quantities also affect the condition of tooth enamel;
- Anatomical structure of teeth, for example, a deep and extensive fissures;
- Systemic diseases that affect overall health;
- The chemical composition of saliva. Saliva is a natural antibacterial and purifying agent, protects the teeth from damage by pathogenic bacteria and maintains the stability of the mineral composition of the teeth;
- Problems with the digestive system;
Fluoridation of teeth
Fluoride is a mineral found in nature in the form of phosphate rock, essential for healthy teeth and normal formation of the enamel. Thinning of the enamel can occur in people who are unable to eat during the formation of dental tissues, there was not sufficient amount of fluoride. That is why many toothpaste manufacturers add to their composition fluoride, and dental clinics offer the service of fluorination of the teeth.
The restoration of the mineral composition of the tooth enamel with fluoride helps to reduce damage, prevent thinning and cracks. It is a good prevention of tooth decay, and helps reduce hypersensitivity of the teeth to the effects of heat and cold, sweet and acidic foods.
In some regions tap water is specially exposed to fluoridation, the residents of this area of caries and other dental disease are 60% less than the inhabitants of the areas where the water is chlorine-free.
However, fluoridation of teeth should be done with caution, because excess fluoride more dangerous than its lack. Residents of the regions where the water contains large concentrations of fluoride can suffer from darkening of the enamel, the appearance of her yellow and brown spots. Therefore, fluoridated water can be used during brushing and for domestic purposes, but drinking it is not recommended. Dental fluoridation of the teeth using a fluoride varnish is carried out not more often than every six months.
Remineralization of teeth
In addition to the fluorination of high efficiency has the procedure of remineralization of the teeth, which is also using a special varnish. Varnish for remineralization of fluoride in addition contains other useful components, reducing the mineral content of the enamel and prevent its destruction. Remineralization is carried out with the same frequency that fluoridation every six months. Its advantages include reducing to a minimum the risk of saturation with fluorine, which distinguishes the remineralization from fluoride treatment.
Restore enamel varnish for remineralization is carried out at one time, it is necessary to undergo procedures that give a cumulative effect.
What if the enamel is severely damaged?
If damage to the enamel minor, previous methods of recovery is sufficient. However, if the defects are too obvious and heavy, simple coating, which can be done even at home, is not enough. In this case, you should use any of the following methods.
Implant is a modern dental procedure that is to apply the composition to the enamel, which is 90% similar in composition to the natural coating of the tooth. Engraftment of artificial protective layer of enamel occurs at the cellular level, while the teeth become much more smooth and shiny, with no minor defects like scratches and chips, and look completely natural.
The disadvantages of the procedure include its high cost and lack of popularity – to hold it correctly in every dental clinic.
Visible defects of the enamel scratches and chips are reduced with composite materials used in filling teeth. The composite is applied layer by layer on the damaged surface, allowing it to harden under a halogen lamp. To the tooth while maintaining the natural shape, it is necessary to grind.
The advantages of this method is the affordable price, the aesthetics, the possibility of correction of serious damage to the enamel and the long term. The life of a composite coating is about five years.
The main disadvantage of composite restoration – its harm to tooth enamel. The composite replaces the natural protective coating of the tooth, thus actually damaging the enamel.
Ceramic veneers presented a thin plate mounted on the front surface of the tooth to hide aesthetic defects of enamel and to correct other deficiencies – too large distance between the teeth, the curvature of their growth.
From the point of view of aesthetics and long-term veneers are a great option, they are absolutely indistinguishable from natural teeth, making them more visually appealing and do not require replacement at least ten years. The disadvantages of this method include, firstly, the relatively high price, and secondly, irreversible damage to the enamel after use. If you once installed veneers to use their have life, or resort to more expensive methods of recovery. After removing the veneers to the tooth surface remains completely defenseless to any external stimulus, chemical or mechanical.
How to keep the enamel of the teeth?
- Don’t ignore preventive checkups at the dentist every six months – this will help you to avoid serious complications and to solve the problem in the Bud. In addition, it will save your money as remineralization in the early stages of this enamel is much cheaper than the subsequent treatment of caries and restoration of teeth;
- Do not ignore the rules of hygiene of the oral cavity, even when you are on vacation or on a business trip. Read the correct method of brushing your teeth and choose a toothbrush optimum rigidity, do not abuse the bleaching and fluoride-containing toothpastes;
- Adjust your diet and habits so that to reduce the number of factors causing damage to the enamel. Refrain from eating sweets, acidic fruits and juices from them, alcohol and coffee;
- Give up the habit of biting your nails, snapping the seeds and to open bottles with your teeth;
- Customize the menu with foods that are rich in micronutrients and vitamins. In the autumn and winter season take a multivitamin complexes.
How much are treatments to restore tooth enamel?
Treatments remineralization and fluorination special trains are affordable, prices start from 50 rubles for a tooth, they can be implemented for either all the teeth or only to problem areas with high sensitivity.
Restoration and composite veneers are more expensive – restoration within 3-4 thousand rubles, the price of veneers start with 10 thousand.
Restore tooth enamel at home
Enamel repair can be carried out without special procedures, simply observing the rules of oral hygiene. We are talking about cleaning your teeth, but for the remineralization of the protective coating of the teeth to apply toothpaste or powder that contain fluoride. Data hygiene can be used for adults and children, moreover, the world health organization since 1984 recommends a toothpaste that contains at least 2 mg of fluoride – ion sources of fluoride.
Among the salts of fluorine in the production of hygienic care of teeth are used such substances:
- Fluoride of tin;
- Sodium fluoride;
- Aminophthalide (organic fluorine compounds).
They are necessary to increase resistance of tooth enamel to the carious metabolites of bacteria, inhibition of growth of bacteria of dental plaque and maintain a constant flow of process of remineralization. Active fluoride (ions of substances in a dissociated form in solution) is one of the most essential compounds for the prevention of caries.
To restore mineral content of the enamel at home are used fluoridated toothpastes, mouthwashes, mouth guard with flirterami gels, self-massage gums to enhance blood circulation and nutrition of tissues of tooth:
- The mouthwash for oral cavity contain components which not only prevent the formation of plaque on the teeth after meals, but retain the health of the gums and contribute to the remineralization of the enamel. Therefore, during the rinsing of the mouth with special tools it is recommended to keep the solution in your mouth for some time (1-2 minutes) for active components act on the surface of the tooth.
- For the enrichment of the tooth enamel fluoride is also used mouth guard filled with fluoride gel. There are two ways of use: the rapid fluoridation, which usually offer a dental clinic and Kapova method for home use. The rapid method involves maintaining a disposable mouthguard with the gel on the teeth for a short time interval (5-10 minutes). Independent fluorination is carried out by Kappa made individually, taking into account the specific structure of the jaws and growth of the patient’s teeth. Fluoride gel which fill the mouthguard, you can leave for a few hours or overnight.
A typical toothpaste usually is enriched with fluoride of sodium (down 0.76%), or monoftorfosfat (to 1.14 %). Children’s toothpaste is much less rich in fluoride (0.02 %), which is necessary for the safe use of cleansing composition on young gums and growing teeth. Some pastes are also silicon and calcium salts, producing an abrasive effect. Along with the fluoride they constitute a system restore and whiten enamel with the caries prevention, which has received the name Fluoristat.
Among other useful additives a substance such as triclosan. Triclosan in the paste composition is present together with copolymeres, a substance that prolongs its effect for up to twelve hours after the last brushing. Triclosan prevents the growth of crystals of Tartar and inhibits the activity of pathogenic bacteria, both gram-positive and gram-negative. This prevents the formation of soft plaque and the destruction of tooth enamel metabolites of pathogenic microflora.