Viral hepatitis E is a contagious liver disease. It refers to groups of fecal-oral hepatitis. The hepatitis E virus was discovered in the tropical regions and countries where the population feels the shortage of clean water.
Transmission of hepatitis E
How is a viral disease, studied by many scientists. They found that the path of transmission of the disease is often water. In rare cases, hepatitis E can be spread contact-household way. There is a possibility of contamination during a meal, for example, by eating raw shellfish. It should be emphasized that pathology is seasonal, which coincides with the peak incidence of hepatitis A. For example, in Russia hepatitis E aktiviziruyutsya autumn and winter, and in Nepal during the monsoon rains. It often happens that the disease suffered by people 15 to 35 years.
Very prone to hepatitis E women during pregnancy 3 trimester. It often leads to the death of the mother or fetus. In childhood the disease is very rare.
The symptoms of hepatitis
There are 2 forms of hepatitis: jaundice and Busselton.
The symptoms of the disease include:
- fever, jaundice, change in urine color;
- the overall weak condition of the body, nausea and vomiting;
- poor appetite, pain in the right upper quadrant;
- enlargement of the liver.
If people have had similar symptoms, it is urgent to seek help from a specialist. The hepatitis E virus enters at the intake of infected food or contaminated water in the human intestines, then absorbed into the blood and distributed to liver cells, where it starts active growth. Mass destruction of liver cells causes impaired liver function and in it occurs the inflammatory process.
To diagnose hepatitis E, you should be tested for immunoglobulin M and G, for the detection of antigens of the virus requires a PCR. Also the doctor will direct the patient to koagulogrammou, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound of the liver. The most common analysis is the detection of the pathogen of hepatitis C by identifying General classes of antibodies IgG and IgM. If diagnostics have identified anti-HEV-IgG positive, then this indicates the active phase of the disease.
A specific indicator that confirms the diagnosis are considered antibodies to the hepatitis E virus IgM class.
Treatment of viral disease
Hepatitis E is similar to hepatitis A, the symptoms and treatment involve diet №5, bed rest, intake of drugs, and enhance immunity with vitamin complexes. To reduce the temperature necessary to consume antipyretics. To prevent dehydration, you need a day to drink enough water. Sports and other physical activity during treatment is strictly prohibited. Should be excluded during the treatment intake of alcoholic beverages.
Hepatitis allowed to eat whole grains, lean meats, eggs (scrambled), low-fat dairy products, fresh vegetables and fruits (except pears) in a small quantity of honey. Salads need to fill with vegetable oils.
It is desirable to eliminate from the diet of pasta, sweets, but you can replace cakes, pastries and chocolates marshmallows, marshmallows, marmalade and jam. The tea is allowed to drink weak, it is useful to drink compote of dried fruits, natural fruit drinks, jellies and fresh juices. Categorically it is forbidden to eat meats, cheeses, canned goods, chocolate, citrus fruits, spicy meals, drinking carbonated beverages and coffee.
In severe cases, the specialist prescribes corticosteroids to be taken short term. These include Dexamethasone, Prednisolone and Hydrocortisone. They need to take the syndrome of brain edema. If found in the blood the glucose necessary injections detoxification solutions.
When dehydration doctor prescribes a 10% solution of Mannitol, which is administered intravenously. When bacterial complications need antibiotic therapy. The statement is subject to the patient only if his state of health corresponds to healthy people, the skin does not have yellow color, in the blood, no bilirubin. The liver should return to its normal size, and the color of the urine changes characteristic for a healthy person of color.
Hepatitis A vaccine is not invented, but immunoglobulin injections to prevent infection in those patients, which not long ago was sick of this viral disease. The course of treatment along with the recovery of the body lasts at least 2 months.
Prevention of the disease
To prevent hepatitis E prophylaxis is needed. It is providing people with good quality water and in sufficient volume. Products must be safe, stored in proper conditions. It is important to observe rules of personal hygiene. After a walk or going to the toilet should wash their hands thoroughly using soap. All purchased fresh fruits and vegetables should be washed under running water before taking them for food.
Among fans of the use of mussels reported outbreaks of the disease, so it is not advisable to eat raw seafood. In case of poisoning should not slow down treatment