Thrush is popularly called is disease such as candidiasis. In this disease the Candida fungi can damage skin, mucous membranes, and even internal organs. The incidence of candidiasis among the population is very high, and they suffer from the disease people of all ages.
Causes of candidiasis
Candida fungi belong to conditionally pathogenic microorganisms. They colonize the intestines, mucous membranes, skin, and from time to time do not cause any inconvenience. However, should the immune system to fail, as the Candida fungi start to grow rapidly and multiply. This leads to a candidiasis.
The factors contributing to candidiasis:
- Endocrine diseases (diabetes mellitus, thyroid disease, obesity);
- Chronic infectious diseases;
- Diseases of the blood;
- The use of hormonal contraception;
- Long-term treatment with antibiotics, corticosteroid hormones, cytostatics.
In addition, for the reproduction of fungi Candida must be suitable conditions. Thus, this microorganism is very comfortable feels when wet. This is worth remembering when you use wet towel, wearing wet underwear, irregular changing of sanitary pads.
It should be noted that frequent use of soap, antibacterial gels for washing, douching lead to deterioration of local immunity. All of these factors contribute to the activation of reproduction of fungi.
Signs of thrush
Doctors distinguish two large groups of candidiasis: superficial and visceral. Superficial candidiasis include skin lesions, mucous membranes and nail plates and surrounding tissues. Visceral candidiasis is characterized by lesions of the internal organs and occurs infrequently (mainly observed in patients severely weakened existing chronic infections).
The symptoms of yeast infection of the mouth
Thrush of the mouth most often affects children and the elderly in connection with reduced activity of protective mechanisms of the immune system. The oral candidiasis can occur in various forms: in the form of stomatitis, cheilitis, glossitis.
The disease causes a white cheesy patches on the mucous membrane of the cheeks, gums, lips, palate, tongue. Attempts to remove plaque with a spatula lead to exposure of the bleeding mucosa. The transition of Candida infection on the lips they are peeling on the surface appear thin whitish film, painful bleeding cracks and erosion.
Patients with yeast infection of the mouth complain of a burning sensation, pain when eating. In the chronic yeast infection of the mouth is often complained about dry mouth and some soreness.
In the absence of adequate treatment for thrush is able to transform into the atrophic form. The result is sloughing of the epithelium and thinning of the mucous membrane of the oral cavity. The tongue becomes bright red, in the pathological process involved the lips and corners of the mouth. A whitish coating from the mucous is almost impossible to remove with a spatula.
The symptoms of genital candidiasis
Urogenital candidiasis is a very common pathology, and suffer affliction both women and men. It is believed that about 75% of all women at least once been faced with urogenital yeast infection.
Thrush in women occurs in the form of candidiasis and is accompanied by such symptoms:
- Redness on the vulva;
- Itching or burning sensation in the perineum;
- Whitish cheesy discharge from the vagina, which is particularly worse before menstruation;
- Pain during intercourse;
- Discomfort when urinating (itching, burning, pain).
According to modern concepts of urogenital candidiasis is not a sexually transmitted infection in the classical sense.
Because Candida fungi are members of the normal microflora of the urogenital tract. However, the likelihood of transmitting genital candidiasis from an infected person to a partner is still present.
Thrush in men occurs in the form of balanoposthitis, and is manifested by such signs:
- Redness in the area of the head of the penis;
- The rash of papules (nodules), spots, erosions of the glans penis, covered with white bloom;
- Cracks on the penis;
- Itching, burning in the perineum;
- Soreness during sex;
- Dysuria (pain, burning when urinating).
Symptoms of thrush in newborns
Thrush hurt even small children. So, newborns can become infected while still in the womb or while passing through the birth canal. Therefore, identified during pregnancy, yeast infections need to be treated to avoid infecting the baby.
Thrush newborn Candida is characterized by a lesion of the buccal mucosa, tongue, gums and palate. These plots are able to detect extensive whitish spots, resembling cottage cheese in consistency. Characteristically, when removing plaque with a spatula visualized by red mucous membrane. A kid with candidiasis is restless, crying, not sleeping and eating. Rarely the yeast infection manifests in infants with conjunctivitis and pneumonia.
Diagnosis of thrush
To confirm the diagnosis of thrush conduct laboratory research. If you suspect candidiasis in the patient is taken scraping for microscopic examination of native preparations – glass, as well as conducting bacteriological sowing.
To obtain reliable results in cases of suspected urogenital candidiasis is necessary to observe certain conditions for the selection of stroke:
- A swab is taken prior to the treatment with antifungal drugs;
- To monitor the effectiveness of treatment, recurrent smear is taken two weeks after the end of the therapeutic course;
- Swab of the vagina is taken no earlier than three days after the last intercourse;
- A swab is taken before menstruation or after a couple of days after their completion.
Principles of treatment of thrush
The mainstay of treatment of yeast infection is the application of antimycotic drugs. These medications come in various forms.
So, when urogenital candidiasis applied antimycotic means of the local and systemic effects:
- Vaginal suppositories (Miconazole);
- Vaginal tablets (Clotrimazole, Intraconazole);
- Creams (one percent Clotrimazole, Miconazole and two per cent Butokonazol);
- Tablets inside (Intraconazole, fluconazole);
- Probiotics to restore the microflora of the vagina (suppositories Bifidumbakterin, Lactosorb, etc.).
During treatment doctors recommend to abstain from sex or at least to have sex exclusively with condoms. Treatment of genital thrush spend at least seven days. In recurrent form of the disease, the doctor may prescribe a supportive therapy for a few months.
The effectiveness of treatment assess the results of studies two weeks after finishing the medication.
Candidiasis of the mouth the patient is treated with the mucous membrane of the mouth fukortsin, Lugol. Shown rinse the mouth with soda solution or boric acid, as well as treatment oral antifungal ointments (for example, Nistatinovaya, Lavrinovic). Antimycotic means is also credited for ingestion (e.g., tablets Fluconazole, Ketoconazole).
Treatment of newborns is local treatment oral antiseptic: chlorhexidine or a solution of baking soda. In complicated form of thrush inside prescribe antifungal drugs.
To strengthen the immune system patients with yeast infection attributed to vitamin preparations, and immunomodulatory agent.