21.04.2024

Allergy in children symptoms, treatment and prevention

Children’s immune system has a lower stability compared to immune adults and don’t know how to respond to negative external influences, intake of unknown substances and to separate the truly dangerous substances from those that are not. This is due to the fact that the child’s immune system is in the process of formation.

And the younger the child, the less stable is its immune system. This means that the frequency of allergic reactions in children is much higher.

Allergies affects people of different ages. And children are no exception. Moreover, in childhood, allergic reactions are more likely and occur they are usually heavier than the adults. This is due largely to the immaturity of the child and especially a child’s immune system.

Therefore, all parents should know what it looks like allergies in children, in order to proceed to its treatment. In this article you will find not only a description of the different types of allergies, but also allergic skin reactions in babies.

Causes of allergies in children

Allergic reactions are the processes related to the improper functioning of the immune system. For their appearance the necessary allergens – substances that the immune system reacts in a special way, causing inflammation. The mechanism of development of allergic reactions involve the immune system cells lymphocytes and leukocytes, mediators of inflammation – histamine.

Which can cause allergic reactions in children

The list of substances that can cause allergic reactions in children and adults, is large enough. After all, we live in a world where we are surrounded by a huge number of potentially hazardous substances. Many of these substances came to light thanks to the development of civilization. However, this does not mean that allergens are purely chemical products and man-made compounds. A lot of allergens present in natural materials and biological objects.

In children, most often there is an Allergy caused by contact with the following substances:

  • food
  • household care products,
  • hair and saliva of animals
  • house dust,
  • pollen
  • medicines.

Also often allergic reactions can result from insect bites, exposure to cold or sunlight.

Food Allergy

After the birth of a newborn infant is fed breast milk. Therefore, the transition to normal food is a stress to the body, which can lead to allergic reactions. As addiction to any type of food allergic reaction can subside. But if not, then it is recommended to avoid products containing food allergens from the diet of the baby.

What foods most commonly cause allergies in children:

  • citrus,
  • tomatoes,
  • eggs,
  • honey,
  • dairy products,
  • cocoa
  • red fish and caviar.
Allergic to dust and pollen, animal hair

The most often allergic to these substances is manifested in the form of rhinitis (runny nose) and watery eyes. But sometimes sprayed in the air, microscopic particles can cause asthma attacks and dermatitis. Usually allergic reactions are not caused by the particles of dust or fur, and the animal proteins.

Sources of these proteins are primarily animal saliva or droplets of their urine, and a variety of pathogenic microorganisms. Because even the most fastidious cats love to lick themselves, and dogs are regularly on the street and bring dirt and germs. And the child after contact with such animals can get a sufficient dose of the allergen in order to develop an allergic reaction.

Household chemicals

Allergy causing substances can be contained in detergents, shampoos, Soaps, washing powders. Naturally, every mother ensures that her child would be pure and as little as possible would be exposed to infectious diseases. However, excessive desire for hygiene, and the use of poor quality detergents may endanger the health of the child, not strengthen it.

Allergy medicines

It can occur, if the child is prescribed any medications from other diseases. Most often allergic reactions in young children cause antibiotics, primarily penicillin. Also, children may experience allergic skin reactions to different creams and ointments.

Allergic to insect stings and other animal

Allergic reactions caused by contact with the blood particles of the saliva of animals or animal toxins are very dangerous and can cause the most severe form of allergic reaction, angioedema and anaphylactic shock. Especially dangerous bites inflicted in the upper part of the body of the child – the head and neck.

Types of pediatric Allergy

Allergy in children can manifest itself in various ways. Some types of allergies do not manifest too clearly and can pass by themselves without causing the child significant discomfort and not hurting his health any harm. Other types of allergic reactions give child a significant inconvenience or even endanger his life.

The main types of allergic reactions:

  • dermatitis,
  • skin itching,
  • tearing,
  • allergic runny nose (rhinitis),
  • bronchial asthma,
  • urticaria,
  • angioedema,
  • anaphylactic shock.

It is especially dangerous when an allergic reaction is manifested in the form of anaphylactic shock and angioedema. Anaphylactic shock – a condition in which the pressure drops sharply, shortness of breath and risk of loss of consciousness, collapse and stop living processes. Angioedema typically does not pose a threat to life itself. But if it affects the face, neck and larynx, there is a risk of spasm of the airway, asphyxia and death. If you experience these States the child is subject to immediate hospitalization.

Symptoms and signs of allergies in children

Allergy symptoms depend on types. They may be local in nature, such as an allergic reaction to the injection or the bite, and systemic, affecting the whole body. First of all, parents need to pay attention to the condition of the skin. Such allergic reactions as hives or dermatitis may be accompanied by redness of the skin, appearance of fine skin rash. It is also possible swelling due to the violation of capillary permeability. Other systemic manifestations of Allergy may be noted dyspnea associated with bronchospasm, lacrimation, allergic rhinitis.

However, remember that if your child has red spots on body – it may not be allergies. Red spots can be symptoms of various diseases, including skin infections (pityriasis rosea, erythema), as well as viral infections that affect the entire body (rubella, measles, scarlet fever, chickenpox). Red spots can also be due to heat rash or insect bites. Therefore, the appearance of red spots of the child is necessary to show the pediatrician. In addition, should focus on additional characteristics such as the presence of elevated temperature (for allergies it usually is not).

Treatment of allergies in children

To cure allergies, it is first necessary to identify the allergen that caused the undesirable condition of the child. In this parents can help simple ways such as keeping a food diary that records all foods that were given to the child. Special attention should be paid to products with a high degree of allergenicity. Similar products, it is best not to give small children.

By process of elimination you can discover the product that caused an unwanted reaction. Hypoallergenic diet that is optimal for children of a certain age, it is best to install in accordance with recommendations of the nutritionist and the pediatrician.

This method of determining the source of Allergy can be applied to other cases. For example, if the child was taking any medications, you should try to replace them with others, of course, after consultation with the doctor.

If breastfeeding, it is worth considering that many drugs taken by the mother and also the allergens contained in the food that can penetrate into breast milk and cause allergic child.

You must also keep in mind that many diseases, especially skin, can have symptoms similar to Allergy symptoms. Therefore, the presence of allergic conditions should be diagnosed by a specialist allergist. He shall determine, and the required treatment. To identify the allergen doctor may order skin tests or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

Medication Allergy primarily involves drugs that block histamine receptors in the tissues of the body. These drugs can be divided into several generations. The first generation includes such drugs as Suprastin, Tavegil, Diphenhydramine. However, despite their cheapness, they have a considerable number of side effects and may not be assigned to children. Therefore, for the treatment of allergic reactions in children were most commonly prescribed antihistamines of the second generation, such as loratadine, Cetirizine. In severe cases a physician can prescribed hormonal anti-inflammatory drugs.

What is dangerous children’s allergies?

Allergic reactions in children is quite frequent, and, in principle, is not a dangerous phenomenon, if it does not pass certain limits. They testify to active immunity, which gradually gains experience and learns to perceive coming from the external environment stimuli. However, some types of allergic reactions can present a serious danger to the life and health of the baby. So if a kid’s body is inclined excessively to rapidly respond to any stimuli, it is recommended to take him to a doctor, to share with him the parents could choose the optimal strategy, allowing to avoid complications of allergic reactions.

Prevention of allergic reactions in children

There is probably no single person who never in life have not experienced any allergic reactions. So it makes no sense to keep the child under the hood, protecting it from all possible allergens. However, increased vigilance is still necessary to comply with parents of children with increased susceptibility to allergies, or, in other words, suffering from allergic diathesis, those who have allergic reactions are observed from the first months of life. In addition, an important role in causing the propensity to allergies heredity plays. If someone from parents of a child have a tendency to allergies, there is a high likelihood that the child will suffer from allergies often peers. But if the allergies are both parents, the probability of this even more.

Although completely to protect the child from allergens is impossible, however, it is necessary to limit and, where possible, completely eliminate contact with most non-allergenic substances. For example, the exotic foods at an early age the child is generally better not to try. It should also give the child a high-quality food products with known and proven components. We should not skimp on quality detergents, personal care products, toys made from hypoallergenic materials. In the room where the child is constantly, it is necessary to do regular cleaning, since the abundance of dust can also lead to the development of allergic reactions.

One thought on “Allergy in children symptoms, treatment and prevention

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