Vegetative-vascular dystonia in children can be either an independent disease, or a consequence of a somatic illness, for example, renal failure or diabetes mellitus, a disease of the nervous system, or injuries.
Hereditary predisposition, birth injuries, abnormal pregnancy can lead to it. Often there is an IRR in adolescents, as well as with severe fatigue, frequent stresses, violation of the regime, reduced physical activity, due to problems in the family or school and other social factors. It is capable of causing particular physique and some personality traits, for example, increased anxiety, susceptibility to hypochondria and fears.
Symptoms of vegetative-vascular dystonia
Since the autonomic nervous system can affect almost all organs, there may be a lot of signs signaling a malfunction. They may be of a different nature and resemble the symptoms of other diseases.
Doctors identify the main features of the IRR:
- Problems of the cardiovascular system. They manifest changes in blood pressure, heart rhythm disturbances, abnormal manifestations of the peripheral vascular bed – coldness of the limbs, marbling of the skin, pallor, facial flushing, pain or discomfort in the region of the heart, not associated with physical exertion.
- Breathing problems. Shortness of breath, feeling of lack of air, sudden deep breaths against the background of calm breathing may occur.
- Digestive problems. A child may complain of abdominal pain, heartburn, nausea, anorexia, constipation or diarrhea. Often, children suffer from pain in the IRR that occurs in the chest, sometimes aggravated by swallowing. Usually they are associated with spasms of the esophagus, but they are confused with pain in the heart.
- Emotional instability and neurotic disorders. This may manifest one or more of the following symptoms: increased anxiety, unreasonable anxiety, unreasonable fears, apathy, tearfulness, worsening of mood, tantrums, hypochondria, depression, sleep disorders, fatigue, lethargy and feeling of weakness.
- Violation of thermoregulation. Manifested in frequent unreasonable drops or temperature rises. Children do not tolerate dampness, drafts, cold, all the time freezing or experiencing chills. There may be a constant low temperature, falling at night.
- Violation of sweating. It is expressed by increased sweat on the feet and palms.
- Violation of urination. In the absence of inflammatory processes, frequent urination or rare urination that require effort may occur.
Not always the patient will experience all of the above symptoms. Depending on the severity of the disease, the number of symptoms and their severity may be different.
When making a diagnosis, the doctor draws attention to the prevailing symptoms, which determine the type of IRD:
- Hypotonic type. The main symptom is low pressure, accompanied by excessive sweating, weakness, dizziness.
- Hypertensive type. The leading symptom is high blood pressure. This does not affect well-being, although weakness and headaches may occur.
- Cardiac type. Heart rhythm disturbances are characteristic. There are pains in the sternum or heart.
- Mixed type. May include all of the above symptoms. A patient suffering from this type of IRR often experiences pressure drops, chest pain, heart rhythm disturbances, dizziness and weakness.
Diagnosis and treatment of vegetative-vascular dystonia
Vegetative dystonia is diagnosed by excluding all diseases that have similar symptoms. To do this, the patient is examined, which includes testing, consultations with specialists, starting with an oculist and ending with a psychologist, ultrasound, ECG and other studies. If no pathology is detected, then vegetative-vascular dystonia is confirmed. The treatment is selected individually. The doctor takes into account many factors: the child’s age, the duration and form of the disease, the severity of symptoms.
Often the basis of therapy is not drugs, but a number of non-drug measures, which include:
- Compliance with the regime : a rational alternation of physical and mental stress, proper rest, daily walks in the fresh air, night sleep for at least 8 hours, reduction of watching TV and staying in front of a computer monitor.
- Physical activity : when the IRR in children can not give up sports, you need to exercise – swimming, cycling, running, dancing. It is recommended to refrain from exercises that require excessive stresses – high jumps, sudden movements, and exerting a heavy load on the vessels.
- Proper nutrition. It is necessary to minimize the consumption of sweet, fatty, salty, snacks and junk food. In the diet should prevail vegetables, berries, fruits, herbs, vegetable oils, legumes and cereals.
- Creating a favorable psychological environment. It is necessary to eliminate any stress load at home and at school. The family should try to create a calm, welcoming atmosphere.
- Physiotherapy. Electro-electric, electrophoresis, bathing, and douche have a good effect in the IRR.
Vegetative-vascular dystonia has gained tremendous distribution among both adults and children. Many doctors often refer to it as IRR or SVD, a syndrome of vegetative dystonia.
This disease is the result of disorders of the autonomic nervous system – an important and false apparatus responsible for unconscious reactions: sweating, thermoregulation, respiration, heartbeat and regulating the work of internal organs. When circumstances require, for example, when frightening or changing physical activity, she gives orders to the heart to beat faster or slower, the stomach to produce gastric juice, vessels to increase or decrease blood pressure. Thus, this unit communicates between the internal organs and the external environment, bringing to them external signals.
For clarity, consider an example – the person was scared. The autonomic nervous system sends a signal and the body reacts to this with rapid breathing, a strong heartbeat, an increase in pressure, or rather it mobilizes all forces and is prepared for action. At the same time, too much digestion in such a situation receives a signal – to stop the secretion of gastric juice.
If the functioning of the autonomic nervous system fails, the regulation of the work of the systems and organs is inadequate and they react to external stimuli not as they should.