If the disease is uneventful, treatment of measles does not require specific therapy. The children’s body itself copes with the virus. During the acute period and a couple of days after it ends, the child is given bed rest.
The room in which the patient is located must be ventilated daily. To avoid cuts in the eyes, it is recommended to create a subdued lighting.
The child must be given plenty of fluids: fruit drinks, compotes, teas, and mineral water. Its food should consist of light food, mainly vegetable and dairy. To maintain immunity is useful to take vitamin complexes. You should take drugs to relieve symptoms: conjunctivitis, fever and cough. If measles in a child is accompanied by bacterial complications: otitis, bronchitis, pneumonia, the doctor prescribes antibiotics.
A vaccine against measles is included in a routine vaccination. The first time it makes healthy children at the age of 1 year, the second at 6 years. The vaccine contains weakened live viruses, to which the child produces a stable immunity.
In rare cases, after measles vaccination, children may experience mild symptoms of the disease. The immunity that children receive after vaccination is as strong as those who have had measles, but it can gradually decrease. If his level goes down severely, the child may get sick when in contact with the carrier of the virus.
Measles prevention for children who have been in contact with a patient consists in the management of a specific immunoglobulin. Immunity, which in this case is formed, is maintained for a month.
Measles is one of the most infectious viral diseases. Its appearance is provoked by the measles virus. It is distributed only by airborne droplets – a healthy child inhales it when communicating with a patient. In the external environment, the virus quickly dies under the influence of sunlight and air, so infection without contact with the carrier of the virus rarely happens.
The measles virus infects the mucous membrane of the eye, the cells of the respiratory system, the central nervous system and the intestines, causing a rash. But the main danger of measles is complications. The disease weakens the immune system so much that the patient’s body cannot cope with other infections.
When measles is often observed the accession of a secondary infection, there may be activation of conditionally pathogenic flora, constantly residing in the body and suppressed by immune cells. Frequent complications of measles are bronchitis, pneumonia, otitis, conjunctivitis, stomatitis, meningitis, myocarditis, pyelonephritis, cystitis and intestinal inflammation associated with increased reproduction of pathogenic microorganisms.
A sharp decrease in immunity occurs during the period of rash and after recovery lasts about a month. To prevent the negative effects of measles, the child must be monitored, even after full recovery.
Symptoms of measles
In children who have not been vaccinated, measles is difficult.
During the course of the disease, 4 periods are distinguished:
- Incubation . It begins with the ingestion of a virus and until the first clinical signs of the disease appear. Always proceeds without symptoms. Duration ranges from 2 to 3 weeks, can be reduced to 9 days. During this period, the virus multiplies, and when it reaches the required number, it enters the bloodstream and the next period of the disease begins. A measles child begins to spread the virus 5 days before the end of the incubation period.
- Catarrhal . With the beginning of this period, the duration of which is 3-4 days, the child’s temperature rises, a runny nose, redness of the eyes, dry cough and fear of the light occurs. On the mucous membrane of the mouth, in the region of the base of the molars, the patient appears small white-gray spots, with redness around them. This rash is the main symptom of measles, it is for him that you can make a correct diagnosis in the early stages, even before the appearance of characteristic rashes on the skin. All symptoms worsen: the cough increases, it becomes more painful and obsessive, the temperature rises to high levels, the child becomes drowsy and lethargic. When the manifestations reach their climax, the first rash appears on the skin and the next period begins.
- Period of rash . The face of a sick child becomes puffy, lips dry and cracked, the nose and eyelids swell, eyes turn red. Rashes in the form of red-maroon specks begin to appear on the head, the next day they descend lower to the upper part of the body and arms. In a day, the spots spread throughout the body, arms and legs. With a large amount of measles rash merges and forms shapeless large spots that can rise above the skin. Usually on day 4, when the rash takes up the whole body, the symptoms of measles begin to decrease and the child’s well-being improves. They disappear in a week or one and a half after the onset of the rash. On the fifth day after the onset of the rash, the patient becomes non-infectious.
- Period of pigmentation . The rash disappears in the same manner as it appears. In its place is formed pigmentation – areas with darkened skin. The skin is cleaned after a couple of weeks.