Glioma of the spinal cord is one of the most common tumors. These tumors vary in degree of malignancy, signs, and ability to metastasize.
From what fabric is this tumor still remains unclear. It is believed that an astrocytoma (a type) develops their astrocytic Rostock and oligodendroglioma – from another of the same name Rostock. There is information about the fact that this lead to all sorts of mutations in different genes.
The best classification is the one that was proposed by the who.
The first grade should include benign growths, in this case it will be a pilocytic astrocytoma.
The second grade included diffuse astrocytomas and its variants. In this case, the tumor has one clear sign – abnormal cells.
To the third degree are anaplastic astrocytomas. And the fourth – glioblastoma multiforme.
In most tumors of this type occur in the age from 30 to 50 years. In children they are almost not diagnosed. Moreover, in contrast to those that develop in the brain, in the spinal cord these formations do not have intracerebral location. Only 15% of them appear in the nervous tissue, others grow in fatty tissue, vessels, shells, and bones.
All the symptoms can be divided into three syndrome – radicular, half the lesion diameter, full damage diameter. Regardless of the initial disposition in the end still show signs of complete destruction of the diameter.
Benign glioma of the spinal cord intramedullyarnogo location and extramedullary locations will have different symptoms. In the first case, they will appear in that order, and in what has been described above, that is, first appear spine, then half the damage diameter, and then full.
Moreover, in the initial stages the symptoms are due to the development of the compression, and only later – because of the tumor. The second type of tumors behaves differently in this case occurs as soon as the damage diameter, and radicular symptoms are that the education will grow outside of the spinal cord.
Radicular syndrome has the following manifestations:
- Pain that increases with coughing or sneezing.
- Disorder of the reflexes.
- Loss of all kinds of sensitivity.
All sometimes this leads to errors in diagnosis as the same symptoms appear with the development of sciatica.
Syndrome brown-sekara, or half the diameter of the lesion expressed in the appearance of paresis below the lesion of the spinal column, as well as the manifestation of various disorders. Thus there is complete loss of muscular-articular and vibration sensitivity, reduced pain and temperature perception.
Total defeat is characterized by complete loss of all kinds of sensitivity, as well as paresis and paralysis on both sides. Marked disorder of pelvic organs, trophic disorders are often the cause of formation of bedsores.
Types of chemotherapy for the glioma are selected only by the doctor. There is such a treatment before surgery, or after, and if you remove the tumor is impossible because of the peculiarities of its location or complications that already exist in the patient.
The first method – flow intrathecal spinal canal. The second the medicine is injected into a cavity, which is formed by removal of glioma, after which it slowly spreads through the brain substance.
This treatment has many contraindications. For example, it is not carried out in acute and chronic infections, disorders of the liver, renal failure, liver metastases, and age of the patient.
The forecast, as the nearest and remote, will depend on what type of tumor, its malignancy, the location, structure, and duration of compression. Removal of benign tumors almost always leads to the complete disappearance of almost all symptoms. But the recovery period can last up to 2 years.
If the compression of the nerve tissue lasted more than a year to achieve a full recovery of the neurological deficit will fail and the patient becomes disabled. The mortality rate in this case does not exceed 1%.
And malignant intramedullary spinal tumors have a poor prognosis, and treatment is often only palliative.