Gonarthrosis of the knee joint is a disease leading to joint deformation and drying out of cartilage. This is a very common disease among young and old people. It is especially common in athletes due to injuries and great physical exertion. One of the names of the disease is deforming gonarthrosis.
Symptoms of the disease appear gradually. At first, they do not bother much and cause inconvenience, but they increase over time. At first, a person may be slightly disturbed by pain in the knee. It is non-intense, it is felt in the morning or after a person has been in a supine position for a long time.
Discomfort will gradually increase. Soreness is felt when a person steps on his foot or rests on it. The disease can develop at a young age, especially due to the consequences of injuries. In women, gonarthrosis is more common. In order not to start the pathological process, timely treatment is required.
With gonarthrosis, it is difficult for a person to bend a sore leg in the knee in the morning. This is how morning stiffness manifests itself. It takes about thirty minutes to develop a joint and get rid of pain. A crunch in the knee also appears. It occurs due to the deformation of the elements that form the joint. Pathological disorders affect the articulating bones and cartilage, so they cling to each other and this leads to the appearance of a characteristic crunch. With the progression of gonarthrosis, the crunch intensifies, becomes more distinct.
The pain begins to bother more when the knee is in a bent state, that is, on extensor and flexion movements. So, climbing the stairs, the load on the knee increases, and discomfort appears.
Symptoms of the disease:
- joint pain in the knee;
- discomfort when walking;
- weakness in a sore leg and muscles;
- stiffness in the leg in the morning;
- crunch in the joint.
Over time, pain increases in duration of occurrence. Discomfort is added in the evenings, as well as after a long load on the foot. A person in this state needs rest. With the advanced stage, pain is constantly present. Neither rest nor changes in the position of the leg help. To ease the condition, people are prescribed pain medications. Also, treatment includes gymnastics, special exercises and a certain diet.
Types of gonarthrosis of the knee joint and the degree of disease
There are two groups and three stages of the disease. Groups are distinguished based on clinical studies, and stages on the degree of disease progression.
Seeking medical help at the first stage will not start the disease. A specialist in this disease is an orthopedic surgeon.
Primary deforming gonarthrosis is the first conditional group. Elderly people fall into it. The pathogenesis of this disease is not fully understood. In people aged gonarthrosis is manifested by bilateral knee damage. Secondary gonarthrosis appears after a knee injury or as a result of a lesion by an inflammatory process in the body. This type does not depend on the age of the person. It appears mainly on one leg, that is, it is one-sided. There is a deformation of the joint, which is progressing. Its cause is the proliferation of bone surfaces. This leads to limited mobility of the joint, and eventually to disability.
Gonarthrosis of the knee joint of the 1st degree is almost not felt. Occasionally, non-intense pain in the knee aching in nature. It occurs after walking or another long load on the knee. Pain is accompanied by a small swelling of the knee, which on its own passes when the load is removed and resting. In the first stage of the pathology, the joints are not yet subject to deformation.
Gonarthrosis of the knee joint of the 2nd degree is manifested by increased pain. It is already more intense and occurs on its own without the influence of physical activity on the knee. Crackling is present in any movement. Morning stiffness in the joint is also inherent. The knee has to be rubbed before the start of movements. If you take an x-ray, then the deformation and swelling of the joint will be noticeable on it. In this case, knee mobility is limited.
The third degree is accompanied by severe pain. With changes in the weather, the knee begins to ache very much. It’s hard to move around at this stage. Massages and leg workouts do not bring relief. Deformation of the joint is already noticeable on the eye. The knee is inherent in a change in the color of the skin to a bluish tint, it looks swollen.
Diet for disease
The diet is selected by the doctor depending on the course of the disease. Medications taken internally interact with food, which, in turn, can enhance or weaken the effect of drugs. Also, the lack of minerals and vitamins in the body can aggravate the course of pathological processes.
As a result of the disease, the cartilage tissue of the joint is destroyed, or its drying out. To prevent this, the specialist calculates the required calorie level per day. It is especially important not to overeat people who are overweight and those who have an indigestion.
The diet is based on the intake of meat products. Protein food of animal origin strengthens muscle tissue. For cartilage, the diet involves the use of jelly-like foods. It can be jelly, aspic and other dishes.
With gonarthrosis, the use of alcoholic beverages, milk, fresh tomatoes and cabbage should be avoided. Compliance with the diet will improve the metabolism in tissues, therefore, it will accelerate the healing and well-being of the patient. In addition to following a diet, it is necessary to perform restorative gymnastics and do special exercises.
Ways to combat pathology
How to treat knee gonarthrosis will tell a specialist in the clinic. Self-treatment does not always bring relief, but can even hurt. First, the orthopedist must conduct a diagnosis and examination to confirm the diagnosis. Then he will prescribe appropriate measures to alleviate the condition of the patient.
Treatment may include:
- special exercises;
- taking medications;
- the use of traditional medicine recipes;
Cartilage tissue is restored very slowly and not always completely. Especially if the disease is observed in the elderly. The treatment of deforming gonarthrosis must be taken seriously so as not to start it. Drug treatment includes taking tablets, capsules, and injecting drugs. These are anti-inflammatory drugs that relieve pain and swelling of tissues on the knee.
Another type of drug should be aimed at restoring the cartilage of the joint. Also, with the ingestion of tablets, the doctor can prescribe the rubbing of special preparations for external use. If the deforming gonarthrosis was not stopped, then the operation is shown in its third stage. It includes joint prosthetics or fixation with medical braces. After this, the patient goes through a rehabilitation period.
With gonarthrosis, exercise is useful, but in certain amounts. If physical activity is completely excluded, this can lead to poor blood supply to the joint and muscle atrophy near it. Everyone can do the simplest and most elementary gymnastics, regardless of age and location. The doctor may also prescribe exercise therapy in the hospital. In this case, the specialist collects a group of patients with similar diagnoses and shows special exercises for them. It is better to do exercise therapy after taking a course of medications to develop a joint and consolidate the result of treatment.
In the process of performing useful exercises, all the muscles of the body are trained, which helps to strengthen the musculoskeletal system. Gymnastics is best done in the inactive period of the disease, that is, remission. During exacerbation of gonarthrosis, exercises can aggravate swelling and soreness of the knee. To perform gymnastics at home, special simulators or equipment are not needed.
Deforming gonarthrosis can lead to disability, therefore, all measures must be taken to prevent the disease and stop the progression of the disease. It is also recommended that patients walk for short distances, periodically stopping to rest.