29.11.2020

Herniation: causes, symptoms, types

Hernia – protrusion of an organ or part thereof through a natural or abnormal channels. The occurrence of hernias can occur in different parts of the body and at any age. The deviation violates the quality of life of patients and causes unpleasant symptoms.

The causes of the disease

Depending on the place of a hernia there are several causes of pathology:

  1. 1Obesity. The reason for all types of hernias. Excess weight disrupts the internal organs, squeezes them and causes damage.
  2. 2Pregnancy. While waiting for a child, especially in the later stages, there is a big load on the spine. The fetus presses on the mother’s organs, which can lead to protrusion.
  3. 3Heavy physical exertion. Due to regular heavy lifting, sudden physical exertion can cause disorders in the internal organs.
  4. 4Sedentary lifestyle. Sedentary work, constant driving, resulting in bad posture and digestive disorders due to the compressed organs. This leads to herniated division or a hiatal chart.

In addition, to the formation of hernias leads an unhealthy lifestyle (long-term Smoking, alcohol abuse), wearing tight, constricting clothing, sudden movements (impact, assault, fall).

At risk also are people of high growth over the age of 30. Women are more susceptible to the disease than men.

Symptoms

There are several types of hernias, so symptoms can vary. But it is characteristic of all include the following features:

  • General weakness due to improper functioning of the body;
  • a feeling of heaviness, burning and itching in the affected location;
  • swelling or puffiness on the area of the body that are strongly felt in the muscle tension, cough, but disappears in the supine position;
  • pain when lifting weights, the muscle tension;
  • constant discomfort in one of the areas of the body.

Any signs of a hernia – a reason to go to the doctor. The disease can be easily diagnosis and treatment in the early stages.

Initially symptoms may be mild nature of the symptoms. But with time the pain will intensify and may radiate to other parts of the body. Discomfort aggravated by physical activity (sport, long walking, dancing), but the rest are reduced or disappear altogether. While medication will not have the desired effect and relieve pain.

Not ruled out raising the body temperature. Hernia in the region of the digestive system, the patient may experience nausea, dizziness. Not excluded diarrhoea and vomiting.

In the later stages in the affected area the hernia is palpable and looks like a swollen lump.

Diagnosis

In the first stage, the surgeon examines the symptoms, disturbing the patient and conducts a digital examination that allows you to check for bumps and swelling. The possibility of reposition of the hernia is determined by its size, shape, in horizontal and vertical position of the patient.

To identify hernias in the groin, thigh or abdomen, the patient will have to undergo an ultrasound. When sliding hernias is performed the barium enema (examination of the colon using x-rays), cystography (examination of the bladder with contrast color), cystoscopy (inspection of the surface of the bladder with the use of a device introduced through the urethra).

When herniated conducted x-ray examination, which enables to identify the curvature of the spine, degenerative disc disease, which causes the protrusion. To detect a hernia of intervertebral disks, which allows MRI and CT of the spine. Procedures help to determine the stage of disease progression, to establish the location of education.

If procedure is missing, then the experts resort to contrast myelography (injection of a contrast substance into the space of the spinal cord with subsequent x-ray examination).

Without carrying out these procedures, precise diagnosis is impossible, because of the disease can be confused with myositis, plexitis, malignant tumors etc.

Classification

Depending on various factors there are the following types of hernias.

Origin:

  • acquired;
  • congenital (malformation).

The presence of complications:

  • uncomplicated;
  • complicated (not amenable to reduction, the rupture of viscera in the hernia, inflammation, pinched, etc.).

The flow:

  • primary;
  • recurrent;
  • incisional (ventral hernia occurs in patients in 20% of cases).

In previsti:

  • opravenie (the patient can independently reduce education through Gruziya gate);
  • irreducible (as a result of pinching, the development of adhesions).

Place of education:

  • internal (intra-abdominal, diaphragmatic);
  • external (inguinal, lateral, umbilical, sciatic, etc.), make up more than 80% of clinical cases.
Inguinal

In inguinal hernia, the abdominal organs fall out through the inguinal canal. Most often this species occurs in men. This raises the sense of pain while walking, discomfort after tension, a feeling of heaviness in the abdomen. Sometimes gives pain syndrome in the lower back or sacrum. The internal organs can come out through the spermatic cord or outside it. Sometimes there are two gruzevich bag, non-interconnected and represent the direct and oblique hernia. This contributes to a weakening of the muscles and ligaments of the abdomen as a result of constant coughing, frequent sneezing, heavy lifting or overweight.

Umbilical

Umbilical hernia is characterized by the release of the internal organs through the umbilical ring, which is located in the umbilical region. The small protrusion does not cause discomfort to the patient. But in most cases still symptoms: abdominal pain, lump in the umbilicus, which disappears in a horizontal position. The protrusion may be congenital (a baby from a lump near the navel and becomes visible when crying) or acquired. Most often seen in women giving birth after 40 years.

The white line of the abdomen

A hernia of this type is characterized by the protrusion anywhere along the midline of the abdomen. This protrusion gives strong painful feelings the patient, causes vomiting and diarrhea. When the hernia white line of the abdomen appears the distance between the muscles in the midline of the abdomen, which was first off fat, and then the internal organs. The reason for this disease – congenital or acquired (due to obesity, pregnancy, heavy physical labor) weakness of the connective tissue. The unraveling occurs during the frequent constipation, cough. Develops most often in men 20 to 30 years.

Hiatal

Such a hernia is a displacement of part of the esophagus, stomach or intestines into the chest cavity through the aperture. The disease rarely happens in children at risk people after 50 years. Pathology causes severe heartburn, especially at night, pain in the heart even at rest.

Cause of a hernia is a small physical activity, the problems with cough, the presence of trauma or tumors of the abdominal cavity.

Intervertebral

The protrusion occurs because of diseases of the musculoskeletal system, is often a complication of degenerative disc disease. Education occurs when the spine ruptures of the annulus, the fluid flows and the resulting zaselyalsya nerves.

A herniated lumbar characterized by pain in the lower back, radiating into the buttocks or legs. Violation in the cervical spine causes pain in the head, neck and shoulders, often leads to numb hands. Spinal education in the thoracic spine is characterized by uncomfortable and painful sensations in the heart area.

Femoral

Femoral hernia – a protrusion, formed at the output of organs through the femoral ring. Prerequisites are numerous pregnancies, injuries of the abdominal cavity, quick weight loss, the activities associated with increased abdominal pressure. Pathology is characterized by pain in the groin area or lower abdomen. Discomfort increases with prolonged walking or running. With the development of the disease in the groin area becoming visible education that has a small size and an elongated shape, which is located under the crease. When reduction of the hernia disappears.

Possible complications

Complications hernia of the abdomen is the most common and dangerous complication is infringement. This to any body, the violation may even occur that only appeared in the hernial SAC. Most often the infringement in the elderly.

The complication must be immediately operated on.

In the strangulated organ is disturbed circulation of blood, it changes its color, and the hernial contents become transparent. As a result, developing gangrene, which causes bowel obstruction.

Fecal stasis in the hernial SAC is another kind of possible complications. At risk are people suffering from constipation. The factors that cause deviation are: sedentary lifestyle, overeating, overweight. Symptoms of coprostasis are: nausea, aching, malaise. Treated complication with the help of massage, enemas, in some cases using bowel movements with the use of the probe. You cannot use laxatives because they can cause entrapment.

Sometimes patients have inflammation of the hernia in the abdomen due to infection in inguinal hernia treatment bag. If the infection comes from the abdominal cavity or the skin, then the treatment involves the medical method. If the infection started inside the bag, then needed surgery with removal of the source.

There is a risk of tuberculosis hernia. Complication is an isolated lesion of the walls of the hernia SAC or internal organs contained in it, or it is assumed the mixed type. Intervention in such cases is planned and further includes an antibacterial treatment.

Extremely rare in the hernial SAC can meet foreign bodies (portions of the omentum, fat the mantles of the colon), and tumors or organ damage.

Complications of herniated division include: the clamping of the tail, cervicalgia, migraine, cervicobrachialgia.

Treatment

The method of treatment determined by the physician after examination of the patient and accurate diagnosis. All treatment can be divided into operating (involves surgical intervention) and non-surgical (medication, physiotherapy, physical education).

Drug therapy

Treatment with pills and topical agents will not help to get rid of the disease. Medications taken to relieve symptoms. The use of drugs depends on the type of pathology and assigned a doctor. In case of pain syndrome apply antispasmodics (no-Spa, Baralgin, Spazmalgon), in the presence of stool problems used drugs with a laxative effect (But, Senadeksin, Laxation). Nausea and vomiting will stop Deproxin, Matinal, heartburn recommended FAMO, Dominon, Itamed.

Treatment herniated division involves taking medicines to eliminate the causes of violations. In addition to painkillers, we offer a reception antipyretic and anti-inflammatory drugs (Movalis, Diclofenac), as well as medicines to prevent the growth of hernia and deformation of vertebral of disks (Artra, teraflex, Alflutop).

Do not own to take the above medication. This can lead to side effects and complications.

Physical therapy

The procedure is indicated for detection of a herniated disc. Physical therapy is carried out during the primary treatment or as a method of rehabilitation. The procedure helps reduce pain, normalize blood circulation, reduce inflammatory processes. Recovery koreeda due to the relaxation of muscles and relief the nerve endings. During the procedure, the cells begin to have more ability to regenerate, for the account which reduces the period of rehabilitation.

Bandage

Bandage worn at the spine and hernias white line of the abdomen. When the protrusions on the leg brace supports the internal organs and prevents complications, so the patient feel calmer before surgery. A small belt helps to relieve pain and discomfort. Bandages are prescribed even to infants who have manifested a congenital hernia. Wearing the belt has a minimal number of contraindications, so it is recommended in most cases.

With the defeat of hernia of the spinal column, the brace supports the lower back, relieves pain. It is recommended to always wear it when doing physical exercises. Belt reduces the load on the spine and prevents pinched nerve endings.

There are many types of retaining devices. Need to be chosen after consultation with the doctor and based on their own preferences.

Folk remedies

Traditional medicine is able to eliminate the pain syndrome in the presence of hernias and speed up the healing process. Patients with this aim take a bath with the addition of turpentine, mustard powder, flax seeds, hay dust, lavender. Well established garlic, onion and honey compresses. It normalizes blood circulation and helps to relieve inflammation or swelling. Often recommended rubbing or massage with the medicinal herbs: tincture of birch leaves, St. John’s wort, etc.

Physiotherapy

Physiotherapy is required when the herniated division. Sport activities should be carried out under the supervision of a specialist at least the first few times. When the patient is characterized by a technique of physical exercises you can do at home yourself.

Exercises are aimed at normalization of blood circulation, maintaining muscle tone, strengthening the abdominal muscles and spine and musculoskeletal system.

Surgery

Surgical intervention is the removal of the hernia SAC and reposition of the internal organs. Depending on the place of formation of protrusions, the stage of development there are several types of operating procedures.

Hernioplasty

Surgical method of hernia repair, which consists in cutting the tissue to penetrate into the hernial SAC, its removal (if there is nepravilnosti) or reduction and the stitching of the hernial orifice. There are several methods for such operations necessary to choose the doctor together with the patient.

Laparoscopy

Minimally invasive method that allows not to do the entire section of the tissue. Procedure to carry out the necessary procedures through a few small incisions. Surgical treatment is performed with virtually no blood loss and allows the patient to recover quickly.

Prevention

To prevention of all types of hernias include:

  • proper nutrition;
  • healthy lifestyle;
  • sports;
  • a regular medical examination.

This will reduce the risk of hernias, but does not eliminate it completely.

Peculiarities of disease in childhood

Often children are born with hernias. In this case, you need a constant monitoring by the doctor. There are protrusions as a result of frequent cry of the child. During the wailing in the affected area get a bump. Very rarely such a hernia does not reduce a. But a pinched hernia in children occurs more frequently than in adults. In this case the baby starts to kicks, to push, to cry. If time does not operate on the protrusion, it is possible the development of inflammation, intestinal obstruction and death of the child.

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2 thoughts on “Herniation: causes, symptoms, types

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