Protrusion of the intervertebral disc called it a protrusion and associated with the process of degenerative changes in the cartilage. The disease often affects the lumbar spine that is associated with the large amplitude of the vertebrae during movement.
Pathology may be asymptomatic for a long time, and the first signs noted in the pinching of nerve roots, accompanied by painful sensations. The protrusion in the early stages treated by conservative methods, and advanced cases may require surgical intervention.
The reasons for the development of the disease
The intervertebral discs in the lumbar most vulnerable, as they bear the maximum load during walking and exercise.
There are several factors that contribute to the development of pathology:
- Bad posture: improper location of the vertebrae occurs asymmetrical pressure on the cartilage, so that it changes shape and can protrude from one of the parties.
- Lack of physical activity, which unformed muscular system is unable to support the spine. Increases the risk of displacement of the vertebrae, increasing the pressure on the intervertebral cartilage.
- Spinal injury or failure mode of rehabilitation after them.
- Disk protrusion often accompanies the degenerative disc disease is a disease associated with degenerative changes in the cartilage.
- Of metabolic disorders, including age-that provoke the dehydration of the intervertebral discs, the inability to hold their shape and withstand the pressure of the vertebrae.
- Excessive physical exertion, leading to compression of the cartilage.
- Being overweight can also contribute to the development of pathology.
- Causes of protrusion can be mechanical factors, and changes in chemical composition of cartilage.
The disease can be considered one of the stages of development of degenerative disc disease or herniated discs.
Pathogenesis: what happens in the body?
Elastic cartilage serves as a shock absorber, that is, it prevents friction of the vertebrae and give the spine flexibility. The intervertebral disc is formed by a dense fibrous ring, in the center of which is located a core consisting of 90% water. The metabolic disorders may contribute to the loss of moisture, resulting in fibrous fibers are stretched, the cartilage loses its shape and becomes less elastic.
Disease characteristic of stages, that is, degenerative changes in the tissues occur gradually:
- The first stage is a slight bulging disc, the nucleus is displaced and presses on one of the walls of the annulus. The visual process is manifested by a small bump that takes up to half of the circumference of the disk.
- The second stage is actually a disc protrusion. The bulge may increase significantly in size, but the core is still constrained by the fibers of the fibrous ring.
- The last stage consider a herniated disc when dense fibrous fibers can not withstand the pressure of the nucleus and rupture. The resulting bulge can compress the spinal cord, causing pain. If the process occurs in the lumbar, disturbed innervation of the legs or internal organs of the pelvic cavity.
Signs of the disease
A disc protrusion can be a long time to develop symptoms. Clinical signs appear only when there is compression of spinal nerve roots.
- The first symptom is pain in the lower back during movement and physical activity, increasing with time. Pain syndrome may be present continuously or appear at a certain position of the back slopes.
- Pathology can be suspected in feeling of numbness or tingling in the toes, feet or even limbs.
- Leg muscles become less elastic and movable, felt their weakness.
- Also failures may occur in the bladder, which is associated with a breach of its innervation.
When the first symptoms should seek medical advice. During the examination the doctor will explain what is the danger of protrusion of lumbar disks of the spine, what is it and how to treat the disease. Without timely treatment, the disease may require surgery and complete paralysis of the lower extremities.
Diagnosis is carried out on the basis of anamnesis, clinical inspection and additional research methods.
For suspected disc protrusion assign a computer or magnetic resonance tomography. Pictures will help to determine the location and dimensions of the final diagnosis, prescribe treatment and predict disease outcome.
If the disease is identified in the first stages, it can be treated with conservative methods that the doctor selects individually. The operation is prescribed mainly in the third stage, when the protrusion has managed to transform into a hernia, but any surgery is fraught with complications and recurrences.
Protrusion of vertebral discs of the division is treated comprehensively.
- 1Drug methods will help relieve pain, prevent the development of inflammation. After removal of acute pain, you can assign physiotherapy exercises, massage, physiotherapy, acupuncture or manual therapy.
- 2it is first necessary to remove the cause of the disease. Recommend limiting professional sports, correct nutrition and advise patients about proper posture. If the disease triggered by overweight, you should use the help of a nutritionist.
- 3Shock-wave therapy (SWT) is adjustable sound waves which are focused to a predetermined point. This method will help to reduce compression of spinal roots with clamped, thereby facilitating the passage of nerve impulses and increase the tone of the muscles that support the spine. UHT is also prescribed to patients after completing a full course to prevent recurrence.
- 4, the Laser shows a good result due to directional light waves of a certain length (the optical range), which is the source of the laser. Radio waves have anti-inflammatory, analgesic effect, promotes the normalization of biochemical processes at the cellular level, improve blood circulation, stimulate the regeneration of the body.
- 5Magnetic therapy involves local impact of low-frequency magnetic field to the affected area of the lumbar spine. The procedure has a positive effect on metabolism, blood cells, and reduces inflammation and swelling of tissues.
- 6Acupuncture is the impact of thin needles on biologically active points of the person. This method relaxes muscles, releases entrapped nerve roots, relieves pain and improves circulation.
- 7According to the testimony prescribe mud baths. Natural mud has a high heat capacity, slow heat loss, thereby stopping the inflammatory response, stimulate blood circulation, tissue regeneration, act as muscle relaxants. Manipulation be effective in pathologies of the pelvic organs associated with a protrusion of a vertebral disk. Mud application is applied only on prescription, as different species contain different active components and different chemical composition. The procedure is contraindicated in acute pain syndrome.
The main objective of the exercises for disc protrusion of the lumbar – establishment of a strong muscular corset that will support the spine and prevent recurrence of the disease.
Practice dry or underwater spine traction, the distance between the vertebrae increases pressure on spinal nervous roots decreases, and the disturbed innervation of organs is restored.
A set of exercises performed lying on the back:
- 1Hands along the torso, legs bent. Stretch and relax the abdominal muscles 10-15 times for the control process can be put on the stomach hand.
- 2pull the Legs left and right alternately, repeat the exercise at least 10 times in each direction.
- 3straighten your Legs. Slightly raise your upper body to stay on for 10 seconds and slowly return. Lie down for 10 seconds, then repeat the exercise 14 times.
- 4Legs to bend, a left hand put on the right knee. Then pull the knee toward the head and arm strain and not allow the foot to get closer. After returning to the original position to lie down for 10-15 seconds, then do the exercise another 5-10 times on each side.
After the end of the complex is recommended to lie a little to give the muscles to relax. Exercise should be aimed not only at strengthening the muscles and their elasticity. Stretching is performed smoothly without sudden movements, until the first discomfort. Therapeutic exercise should not cause pain or stiffness in the muscles.
Protrusion of the lumbar discs – this is a dangerous symptom, which without proper treatment leads to motor disorders, diseases of the pelvic organs, and even paralysis of the lower extremities. When the first lower back pain, reducing her mobility and also sensation of numbness of the feet should immediately contact a doctor for a detailed diagnosis, determine the cause and purpose of therapeutic interventions.