Ceftriaxone is an effective modern antibiotic with a wide spectrum of action. The drug belongs to the category of cephalosporins of the III generation.
Form of release and an active ingredient of Ceftriaxone
Biologically active ingredient this antibacterial agent is Ceftriaxone sodium. The drug is sold in sealed bottles containing powder. It is used to prepare solution immediately before injection. Capacity contain 0.5, 1 or 2 g of Ceftriaxone.
A powerful bactericidal effect due to inhibition of protein biosynthesis of cell membranes of pathogenic microorganisms.
Ceftriaxone is characterized by resistance to the bacteria that produce the enzyme beta-lactamase.
Ceftriaxone has bactericidal activity against gram-positive and gram-negative aerobes (including strains that produce penicillinase) and several anaerobes. In relation methicillinsensitive staphylococci cephalosporin antimicrobial drugs ineffective.
The level of bioavailability of the antibiotic reaches 100%. The maximum possible plasma concentration Cetriaxone observed after 2-3 hours after intramuscular injection, and the administration – at the end of the introduction (” the needle end”). Noted that after 2-24 hours after injection, the concentration of cyclosporine in the cerebrospinal fluid greatly exceeds the dosage required to combat the causative agents of meningitis. With albuminami plasma anywhereelse on average from 83 to 98% of the drug. The drug is excreted unchanged in the urine (67%) and bile. In the intestine occurs inactivation of the antibiotic.
Testimony to start taking Ceftriaxone
This antibiotic is indicated for pathologies of infectious origin, are sensitive to this cefalosporina.
Diseases in which Ceftriaxone is shown:
It is important
Ceftriaxone is prescribed to the patients with lowered immunity. For the prevention of postoperative infectious complications it is administered before surgery.
Antibiotic is absolutely contraindicated in patients with individual intolerance to cephalosporin antibiotics and penicillin and beta-lactam antibiotics from the group of carbapenems.
This drug should not be administered if the patient has simultaneously revealed renal and liver dysfunction.
Particular caution should be observed in the appointment of drugs to patients suffering from non-specific colitis, and when enterocolitis due to antibiotics.
The scheme of administration and dose
Dosages depend on the nosological form and the individual characteristics of the patient.
Adults and children 12 years and older are prescribed at 1-2 g/day or 0.5-1 g 12-hourly intervals.
Dosage for newborn (first two weeks of life) is calculated as 20-50 mg per 1 kg of body weight per day. Infants and children up to 12 years administered 20-80 mg per 1 kg of body weight. In bacterial meningitis for this age group, the dose may be 100 mg/kg (but not more than 4 g) 1 times a day. A dose of 50 mg/kg, injected I/V for half an hour.
The treatment of gonorrhea requires a single injection at a dose of 250 mg/m.
With the purpose of prophylaxis of complications after surgical interventions is introduced 1-2 g for 0.5-1.5 hours prior to surgery. If you intend operation on the intestine, further recommended an injection of drugs from a category 5 nitroimidazole.
It is strongly recommended to enter only freshly prepared solutions.
It is important
For injection into the buttock 0.25-0.5 g of the antibiotic diluted in 2 ml of procaine or lidocaine (at a dose of 1 g for the preparation of injection solution was required 3.5 ml of lidocaine).
It is advisable to/m to enter a maximum of 1 g in each buttock.
For intravenous administration of 0.25 or 0.5 g of Ceftriaxone dissolved in 5 ml of water for injection. 1 g diluted in 10 ml showed a slow introduction (2 to 4 minutes).
Preparation of infusion solution requires the use of a solvent of physiological solution (0.9%), dextrose (5-10%) or levulose (5%).
Dosage of 50 mg per 1 kg of patient weight must be entered in/in the drip for at least half an hour.
Before the introduction of the drug should test for sensitivity! When diluted in the lidocaine or novocaine – and to these drugs.
Side effects of Ceftriaxone
The on/in and/m introduction of this cephalosporin in rare cases, develop the following side effects:
A General analysis of the blood during the course of therapy shows anemia, neutropenia, lymphocytosis, and thrombocytosis. It is not excluded nosebleeds.
If the patient has severe renal dysfunction, and dose of antibiotic properly, it is possible tremor, encephalopathy, and seizures. Intravenous injection can cause phlebitis, and in violation of the rules of intramuscular abscess is not excluded.
Debilitated patients may additionally require the appointment of vitamin K, because LS prevents its biosynthesis due to the suppression of the normal intestinal flora.
In case of an accidental excess dose to the affected symptomatic therapy. Excess antibiotic is not excreted by hemodialysis.
The interaction of Ceftriaxone with other drugs
In parallel NSAIDs and other means, reduces platelet aggregation, increases risk of bleeding.
Sharing with the so-called loop diuretics may provoke nephrotoxicity.
It is important
Ceftriaxone is strictly forbidden to mix in the same system or syringe with other antibacterial agents.
On the background of treatment with Ceftriaxone antibacterial activity of aminoglycosides is enhanced.
Ceftriaxone during pregnancy and breastfeeding
Studies have shown that this cephalosporin has no embryotoxic, mutagenic and teratogenic properties, however, it is advisable to appoint in the first trimester of gestation and during lactation because the active material easily passes gematoplatzentarnyi barrier and is found in breast milk.
Compatibility of Ceftriaxone with alcohol
Ceftriaxone and alcohol to combine impossible, they are incompatible. It is strictly prohibited to drink alcoholic drinks and even take pharmacy tincture during the course of receiving Ceftriaxone. After the treatment, preferably a few days to abstain from alcoholic beverages in order to avoid disulfiramopodobna effect (a drop in blood pressure, abdominal cramps, facial flushing, tachycardia, etc.).
The rules of storing and dispensing through pharmacies
Ceftriaxone is used exclusively in hospitals.
Store vials need in places shielded from sunlight, at temperatures from +5° to +25°C.
Keep away from children!
The shelf life of the drug is 36 months. on the date specified on the original packaging.
Analogues of the antibiotic to the active component and the therapeutic effect are:
- Zephrin; Aurobindo;