Pantogram is a popular drug from the group of nootropic drugs. Pantogamum has been successfully used for the treatment of various neurological and psychiatric diseases in adults and children. The drug has a high degree of safety and minimal side effects.
The human brain is a complex mechanism, which occur every second millions of chemical reactions. It is the transformation and interactions of organic matter provide both complex intellectual processes such as thinking, talking, and remembering, and basic neurological reflexes.
Naturally, the lack of essential neurotransmitters immediate psychiatric or neurological problems. And causes of failure in the established generations of the brain and Central nervous system may be many – it is a hereditary disease, and a lack of supply of nerve cells with oxygen and nutrients, and traumatic brain injury, and infectious diseases.
Particularly sensitive to various external failures of a growing child’s nervous system. The slightest deviation in brain development in early childhood, metabolic disorders, lack of neurotransmitters or hypoxia of nerve tissue can lead to irreparable consequences in adult age, to disrupt the formation of higher cognitive and speech functions, mental slowing, speech and intellectual development of the individual.
Pantogram is a drug specifically designed to eliminate the lack of neurotransmitters in cases when the brain experiences a lack of them. The main component of the drug – gopantenova acid. This substance is similar to Pantothenic acid, and includes part of a molecule of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Gopantenova acid has on the nervous system effects similar to that it has on GABA. As you know, GABA is one of the main neurotransmitters of the Central nervous system. He takes part in the transmission of nerve impulses, the mechanism of Central inhibition, nerve cells and metabolic processes in the brain.
In addition to the nootropic effect, consisting in improving the metabolism of nerve cells and increase their level of protection gopantenova acid also possesses sedative, mild analgesic and anticonvulsant effects. It increases resistance brain tissue to hypoxia and poisoning by toxic substances, stimulates anabolic processes in nerve cells, reduces the excitability of the motor. Pantogam increases and resistance to mental and physical stress, normalizes the muscle function and gall bladder.
Pantogram is often used in chronic alcoholism. In patients with chronic alcoholism under the effect of the drug is mitigated by the negative impact of alcohol on the nervous system. Also in the case of alcoholism, the drug has a calming effect, improves blood flow to the brain, normalizes the concentration of GABA in brain tissue.
Also a useful drug can be neurogenic abnormalities of the urinary system. Pantogram contributes to inhibition of the increased bladder reflex and reduces the muscle tone of the bladder – detrusor.
Ingestion gopantenova acid is readily absorbed from the intestine into the blood and then crosses the blood-brain barrier, becoming available for brain tissue. An hour later the concentration of a substance in the blood reaches a maximum. The highest drug concentration observed in the liver, the kidneys, the stomach wall and the skin. Is not subject to metabolisation, and is excreted unchanged by the kidneys (approximately 2/3) and gut (1/3) for 2 days.
Indications for use
The drug is used for various diseases, manifested in violation the most important functions of the brain – emotions, memory, speech, reflexes, intelligence, movements, and behavior. The drug is particularly effective in disorders of the Central nervous system in children:
- the General delay of psychomotor development;
- delayed development of speech, speech disorders;
- hyperkinesis (the traffic violation due to erroneous commands of the brain);
- cerebral palsy (a group of diseases associated with impaired motor function and often mental retardation);
- the syndrome of hyperactivity with deficiency of attention;
- neurosis-like States, accompanied by tics, sleep disorders, stuttering;
- mental retardation;
- perinatal encephalopathy (brain damage incurred in utero or during birth);
In adults, the indications for the drug include organic brain lesions, traumatic brain injury, if they are the reason for the decline:
- mental health,
In such cases, the drug Pantogam is usually applied in the framework of complex therapy with other drugs.
Also, the product can be used in the treatment of:
- epilepsy, accompanied by the inhibition of mental processes (in combination with anticonvulsants);
- Parkinson’s disease;
- senile dementia (initial shape);
- extrapyramidal disorders, including neurologic diseases hereditary diseases (Huntington’s chorea, hepatolenticular degeneration);
- ekstrapiramidnyi akinetic and hyperkinetic disorders caused by neuroleptics (treatment and prevention);
- schizophrenia syndrome retardation and organic cerebral insufficiency;
- atherosclerotic abnormalities of the brain;
- psycho-emotional overload;
- the reduction of intellectual and physical performance;
- of neurogenic urination disorders (frequent urination, imperative urination, enuresis);
- neurotic disorders, aggravated by a cognitive impairment;
- cerebrovascular insufficiency caused by ateroskleroticheskie changes in the blood vessels;
- trigeminal neuralgia;
- residual effects of neuroinfection;
- post-vaccinal encephalitis.
In disorders of the cognitive functions of the brain in adults the drug Pantogam helps to improve memory and concentration, enhance mental performance. In children of school age drug helps to improve school performance in children of preschool age – faster to master the skills of speech and communication.
In Pantogam gopantenova acid presented in the form of the calcium salt – calcium hopantenate. Externally calcium hopantenate looks like white powder. It is highly soluble in water.
The drug is available in two main dosage forms. First, it Pantogram in pill form. In addition, pharmacies can meet the Pantogam syrup for children. Of course, the syrup can be given to adults and, moreover, in some situations, such as during pregnancy, it right recommended.
The shelf life of the tablets is 4 years, syrup – 2 years. Keep the preparation in a dry, protected from light. Is the drug firm “PIK-Pharma”. In most pharmacies, the drug is issued by prescription, although this remains the responsibility of the owners of the pharmacy chains.
In tablet drug can be present as 250, and 500 mg of calcium hopantenate. In addition, substances contained in the tablet:
- calcium stearate,
- magnesium carbonate.
1 ml of syrup contains 100 mg of calcium hopantenate. It also contains such substances (other than purified water), such as glycerol, sorbitol, citric acid monohydrate, sodium benzoate, aspartame. Pantogam syrup is bottled in bottles of 100 ml. Also this package comes with a measuring spoon that allows you to accurately measure the required dose of the drug. Never store the syrup after opening for a long time. It should be used within 1 month. When it opened vial should be placed in the refrigerator.
The reviews about the drug are mostly positive. Many of the patients reported in patients receiving the drug improved his condition and reducing the severity of adverse neurological symptoms. Also, many parents report improvement in their children suffering from neurological disorders. Most like the lack of drug side effects, it’s reasonable price. Doctors say the drug, particularly in children with cerebral pathologies, with perinatal encephalopathy. However, there are many people who the drug did not help.
Analogues of the drug
Structural analogues of the drug are Calcium Hopantenate Pantokaltsin, Garantam, Cognom. Also in the sale you can meet other nootropic agents, but the majority of them has a different composition and scope different from the scope of gopantenova acid.
The drug is distinguished by a high degree of safety and minimum number of contraindications. You can accept Pantogamum and children, from a very early age (including in the very first days of life), and the elderly. However, the drug in the first trimester of pregnancy is not recommended. In the second and third trimesters the drug can, however, use the product not in tablets and syrup. During lactation the drug is also banned. It is also not recommended to take the drug if the patient has increased sensitivity to at least one component, in severe kidney disease or kidney diseases in the period of exacerbation, when phenylketonuria (syrup contains aspartame). Children under 3 years should not give Pantogram in pill form, for them syrup.
Despite the high degree of security, take the medicine recommended by the doctor. Only the specialist will be able to assign a dose, based on the type of disease and the patient. And self-treatment in most cases will not bring any benefit.
Pantogram, like other nootropic agents, can cause adverse effects associated with the nervous system. This suggests that the drug should be taken only on prescription. Also not recommended to take Pantogram and in conjunction with other nootropic and psychostimulant agents.
The main side effects of the drug include:
- the noise in my head.
Usually, such side effects are transient in nature and can be observed only a few days, and then pass on their own. However, if the disappearance of side effects not observed, you should stop the treatment and consult a doctor. In most cases, a lower dose helps eliminate side effects.
Not excluded, and allergic reactions (rhinitis, conjunctivitis, reactions on the skin). When they occur you should discontinue treatment with the drug.
Rare side effect, which is manifested in prolonged drug – a deficiency of Pantothenic acid in the liver, which can lead to hepatic encephalopathy, threatening death. This fact suggests that the drug treatment should be carried out under the supervision of a physician.
In case of overdose usually observed enhancement of adverse reactions. If the drug was taken is greater than the maximum dose, it is recommended to carry out gastric lavage and receive enterosorbents if necessary, – symptomatic therapy.
The effect of the drug on the speed of psychomotor reactions
Is it possible during the course of treatment with Pantogam to drive vehicles and perform work requiring concentration? In the first days of the course, this should not be done, because at this time very probable side-effects, causing drowsiness and loss of concentration. However, after some time, these phenomena must pass.
The product has minimal amount negative interactions with other medications. It lengthens the time of action of barbiturates and, at the same time, softens their side effects. The drug also softens the side effects of antipsychotics, carbamazepine. The drug enhances the effect of local anesthetics, e.g., procaine, anticonvulsants. Glycine and Ksidifon (heteronomy acid) enhance the nootropic effect of the drug.
Pantogam dosage depends on the disease and the patient’s age. The usual single dosage of the drug in tablet form for adults – 0,5-1 g. the Tablets should be taken three times a day. The maximum daily dosage of medicines in tablets – 3 g.
A single dosage of syrup for adults is 5-10 ml. Is the quantity of syrup contains 500-1000 mg of Pantogam. The number of daily receptions, as in the case of tablets also is 3, a maximum daily dosage – 30 ml.
The duration of treatment depends on the circumstances. Usually it lasts 1-3 months. Sometimes it can last up to six months. If necessary, can be assigned and repeat the course after a few months.
In some diseases applies a special scheme. For example, in epilepsy it is recommended to take 0.75-1 g (7,5-10 ml of syrup) of the drug per day.
In schizophrenia, the drug is combined with the intake of psychotropic drugs. Daily dose of 500-3000 mg, duration of treatment is 1-3 months.
In craniocerebral injuries and neuroinfections should take 250 mg (2.5 ml syrup) 3-4 times a day. To normalize health and improve well-being in psycho-emotional loads, it is recommended to use the same dosage, but the drug is taken not more often than 3 times a day.
In extrapyramidal disorders recommended daily dose of 3 g (30 ml of syrup) per day. Treatment with Pantogam this should be combined with other medications. The course of treatment can be up to 4 months.
When extrapyramidal disorders caused by neuroleptics, the recommended dose is 0.5-1 g (5-10 ml syrup) 3 times daily. The course of treatment is 1-3 months.
The same dosage is recommended when using the drug as a means for the treatment of urinary disorders (urinary incontinence, imperative urination). Make the means in this case it is necessary 2-3 times a day. The course of treatment – 2-3 months.
When extrapyramidal hyperkinesis in patients with inherited abnormalities of the Central nervous system should take 500 mg gopantenova acid 3-6 times a day. In these diseases patients are advised to take the drug up to 4 months.
In asthenic syndrome, and excessive mental or intellectual activity it is recommended to take 250 mg three times a day.
If nervous tics in adults, the dose per day is 1.5-3 g. Duration of treatment 1-5 months.
Pantogram for children
Instruction manual says that when the children of a single standard dose of 0.25-0.5 g, the multiplicity of reception – 3 times per day. Course duration can be 1-3 months. If necessary, the treatment can be repeated, wherein the time interval between courses can be 3-6 months.
In the treatment of children disorders of extrapyramidal type, caused by neuroleptics (neuroleptic syndrome), uses a standard dose. The multiplicity of reception 3-4 times a day, duration of treatment is 1-3 months.
For nervous tics also used the standard dose, the multiplicity of reception per day may vary from 3 to 6. Course duration 1-4 months.
With mental deficiency in children is assigned to 0.5 g 4-6 times a day. The duration of treatment is 3 months.
In disorders of urination should be given at 0.25-0.5 g 2-3 times a day. Course duration – 1-3 months.
When dyskinesia in children, we recommend 0.25 g 3-6 times a day.
The syndrome of hyperactivity associated with attention deficit daily dosage is 30 mg/kg of body weight. Pantogram be taken twice a day, the course of treatment is 4-6 months.
In many cases, in various pathologies of the nervous system in children, the doctor can choose the dosage individually. It uses the following scheme in the first 7-12 days, the dosage is gradually increased, then, within 15-40 days the maximum dosage, and at the end of the course (7-8 days) dose gradually reduced to a minimum. This technique allows to avoid the syndrome.
Therapy can vary from 1 to 3 months, in rare cases up to 6 months. Your doctor may prescribe several courses of drug therapy, the interval between which can be 1-3 months.
The maximum daily dose for children depends on age.
- 0-12 months – 1000 mg
- 1-3 years – 1250 mg
- 3-7 years – 1500 mg
- over 7 years old is 2000 mg.
You must keep in mind that children under 3 years are advised to take only Pantogam syrup.
Special instructions for taking
The drug is best taken after meals, but not immediately, but after 15-30 minutes. It is also not recommended to take the drug in the evening. Best thing to do is to 18 o’clock in the evening, in order to avoid violations of sleep a night.