Children actively explore the world, and not always the parents can provide for everything “podstelit straw”, which the kids get injured, from small and fast healing, to deadly. Among all types of injuries special place is occupied by the wound – exposed tissue damage, often accompanied by bleeding of varying severity. How to help your child with different types of wounds, some of them dangerous, what are parents to do?
Wounds in children: a painful and frightening
Under the wounds understand the effects of trauma, which interferes with the integrity of the skin or mucous membranes. Often, when wounds can be damaged and the underlying tissues up to organs, body cavities, skeletal. Wounds have different types of classifications that allows parents and doctors to understand the severity of the damage and the amount of aid that should be provided to the child.
The amount of damage wounds come in:
Usually parents and doctors in Travemunde faced with small wounds that children receive when hitting on hard objects or edges of furniture, because of falling stones, hard surface. Can be wound as a result of overindulgence sharp objects when broken glass. Possible wounds from firecrackers, firecrackers and other pyrotechnics. Variants of injury in children are many, often very peculiar.
Due to the fact that children’s skin has hydrophilicity and flexibility, well developed subcutaneous fat layer, the edges of the wound rarely razmeshalsya or have a fragmentary character, even if it’s blunt trauma. Usually the wound is small, with smooth edges and minor bleeding.
Classification and characteristics of children’s wounds
Wounds can be different depending on the conditions of their production, degree of tissue damage and danger to life.
Based on what traumatic agent acted are:
- incised wounds, usually received in trauma glass, sharp objects – knives, scissors, razors,
- stab – damage thin pointed objects
- bruised and smashed, usually acquired from impacts of hard objects (brick, concrete, stone, furniture, parts of cars, bicycles)
- choppedreceived wide sharp objects
- firearms, due to the use of different types of weapons
- bitten (teeth of animals, reptiles).
Based on what the edges of the wound defect is isolated:
- Linear wounds, tissue damage is on a flat line, slit
- patchwork, part of the tissue is separated
- degloving injuries when the superficial tissue removed, cut
- torn, if the edges are uneven, misshapen.
The degree of involvement of tissues can be distinguished:
- Superficial wounds within the skin to the subcutaneous tissue
- Deep wounds with damage to underlying layers, down to the internal organs.
- Penetrating, with a message inside any cavity (chest, abdomen, joints).
Clinical manifestations of injuries in children
Immediately after receiving the wound externally, revealed the gaping of its edges (divergent tissue to be seen under the epidermis layers), as well as bleeding of varying severity. The wound due to damage to nerve endings, nerve trunks and tissues causing pain. Its intensity depends on the depth and width of the defect, the wound site and the involvement of tissues, muscles, bones, etc. If the injury resulted in damage to any of the bodies, revealed the violation of their functioning. Naturally, the symptoms of different types of wounds differ in many ways.
In superficial wounds, most of which children receive, the pain is not severe, passes quickly. Bleeding also is not very pronounced, especially if the damage is only superficial layers of tissue. http://rockntech.com.br/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/plastico-ferida.jpg
Threat incised wounds, when they can be damaged large vessels – arteries and veins, which leads to a rather severe hemorrhage.
If the wound is not treated properly, it is contamination of land, not covered with a bandage, possible secondary infection with suppuration in a few days. Typical fever, increased redness and pain in the wound area, discharge of greenish-yellow character.
When you have to go to the emergency room?
It is important in helping to determine the reasons and special circumstances of injury, especially if it was not for the eyes of parents. This is important for further treatment and first aid. Thus, the wound can be particles of glass, nails, chips of wood. Externally, the wound may be small, but the nature of the object that caused the injury, a lot of her actual size. Depends on whether you can give first aid at home or must be immediately to the hospital, whether it’s conservative treatment or surgery.
Wounds can be combined with fractures, dislocations, injuries to internal organs, which complicates the provision of assistance. If this is excluded, need to call an ambulance, before her arrival not to bother the child, ensuring him a complete rest.
First aid parents: minor wounds
Even minor cuts with the active lifestyles of children if they play in the sand, earth or communicate with nature, can become infected with dangerous microbes that threaten a secondary infection and complications. Therefore, it is important to know how to treat the wounds, even if they are shallow, to the maximum benefit to bring the baby a minimum of discomfort.
The first thing that can be done with minor wounds and injuries, even in the face of the street on a walk is to clean the wound with hydrogen peroxide. It is now sold in convenient plastic bottles with a pipette on the tip that allows you to easily and precisely handle the wound.
If the skin on the body near the wound is very dirty, and parents with toddlers at home, you can gently wash it in soapy water on a cotton disk or napkin, while holding up the lather the wound itself. This will reduce the risk of infection.
No wounds are not washed under water with the exception caused by animals. With bite wounds, especially if the animal is wild or unknown to you, the wound is washed for a long time under running water with soap to reduce the risk of rabies. In addition, when bitten wounds of blood give a little draining, to wash away particles of saliva and reduce the risk of infection. But this does not negate a visit to the emergency room and a rabies vaccination!
After the initial rinsing of the wound required treatment with antiseptic. This is usually an antiseptic solution (70% alcohol), solution of brilliant green (alcohol 2%), fukortsin, as well as the solutions t or calendula (alcohol).
Pour the wounds of these solutions or iodine, brilliant green, they can lead to tissue necrosis, increase the amount of damage. Also, up to 2 years old should not handle the skin with iodine, it is very cauterizes.
May be suitable for treatment of minor wounds such as drugs Baneuoqin (powder), they sprinkled the injury, as well as Miramistin, they treated the wound.
Can in the bag for the first aid treatment of small wounds on a walk to put the bottle of peroxide, special lekker (compact pencil with iodine or green paint), and bactericidal plaster in individual packaging.
How to stop the bleeding
Usually for small wounds bleeding stops itself automatically after 3-5 minutes. If capillary bleeding, brought to the surface of the skin, you can use a tight compression bandage after washing and wound treatment. This is usually enough to stop bleeding. But if the blood won’t stop for 15 minutes or more, you have access to a doctor in the nearest emergency room.
What to do if the child has a deep wound?
Sometimes the damage can be quite significant, leading to the formation of extensive and deep wounds. Can be damaged skin and the underlying tissues, and first aid in such wounds is different. It is important to treat the wounds, in order to avoid infection and sepsis, a dangerous complication.
It is important to examine the wound on the subject of various injuries and foreign objects that may aggravate the severity.
Many suggest to clean the wound from foreign objects, glass, iron, etc. But doing it is strictly forbidden you can inadvertently damage blood vessels and nerves, which will lead to dangerous consequences.
Wounds deeper than 1-2 cm, do not add peroxide, potassium permanganate or solutions furatsilina. It is important to treat the wound, stop the bleeding, apply a dry sterile dressing if the wound has foreign objects, prifessional her to the bus not to move them, and immediately deliver the child to the nearest hospital to the surgeon.
It is important not to give in this period, baby food and much drink, if you need surgery, it will be very useful.
Treatment of the wound on the head or face
For wounds in the head or face to provide assistance is particularly difficult, it’s painful area and can remain scars from incorrectly rendered assistance. However, in this zone due to the rich blood flow wounds heal fastest. If the hair is short, treatment of the wound is carried out as usual, if these long locks, it is recommended to cut off from around the wound so they do not become a source of infection.
The area of incision was washed with hydrogen peroxide, treated with antiseptic solutions, a bandage. Then you must appeal to the emergency room. This is because the depth of the wound difficult is determined, it is possible subcutaneous hematoma and infection, sometimes require suturing.
If you are not sure that parents can do to properly assist, it is better to call an ambulance or go to the nearest emergency room.
Further management of wounds at home
In General, the wounds usually heal quickly and without any difficulties. Sometimes on the surface may appear sukrovichnye discharge, blood or pus. This significantly impairs healing without scarring. It is important to consult a doctor that he had primary surgical treatment of wounds and told how to care for weeping wounds in the future. Can be used for the treatment of infected wounds ointment Levomekol go Levosin, powder Baneuoqin.
Bandage changes as getting wet or at least twice a day. Wounds after the dressings are removed, washed with a solution furatsilina, or a weak solution of potassium permanganate. If you have a fever, discharge from the wound may require antibiotics, they are prescribed only by a doctor. Such wounds are conducted only under the supervision of a surgeon to their healing.