30.09.2020

Causes of acute maxillary sinusitis

Himaruya sinus represent an empty cavity located just above the upper jaw, inside is covered with mucous membrane. Sinusitis of the maxillary sinus develops as a result of edema provoked by the inflammatory process. Locking a fistula, and there is a delay produced by mucus.

Pathological the secret gradually accumulates and fills the sinus. Stagnant mucus begins to push on the wall, which is accompanied by pain in the nose. Over time, the accumulated allocation turn into pus. It has a thick consistency and to get out, even if the swelling goes down. This is considered an aggravation of the sinusitis, its symptoms over time may increase.

The most common reasons for the development of maxillary sinusitis is considered to be:

  • congenital anatomical abnormalities in the structure of the nasal septum and maxillary sinuses;
  • the lack of adequate treatment for acute respiratory diseases, influenza, rhinitis;
  • reduced immunity due to frequent colds or chronic diseases;
  • enlarged adenoids;
  • polyposis of the nasal cavity;
  • dental disease (pulpitis, periodontitis, cysts).

Depending on the causes of sinusitis there are several varieties of it:

  1. Rhinogenous. Inflammation in the sinuses develops as a result of penetration of infection on the background of prolonged runny nose, respiratory diseases.
  2. Hematogenous. Provoked by infections of other organs that fall into the systemic circulation.
  3. Odontogenic. Occurs as a result of development of the inflammatory process in the roots of the teeth of the upper jaw. Therapy of acute odontogenic sinusitis should be undertaken in conjunction with a dentist.
  4. Traumatic. Diagnosed after injuries of the facial part of the skull.
  5. Vasomotor. Develops on the background of the abnormal enlargement of the blood vessels and, as a consequence of edema of the mucosa.
  6. Allergic. The main reason is the inadequate reaction of the organism to allergens (pollen, food, dust, etc.).

Patients suffering from these diseases you must know the differences between acute sinusitis and sinusitis. What is the difference between these pathologies? For sinusitis doctors attributed the inflammatory process developed in any of the paranasal sinuses and sinusitis – purulent disease of the maxillary sinuses.

The symptoms of acute sinusitis

In most cases, patient complaints in this disease are quite specific.

Most often the symptoms of acute sinusitis are:

  • shortness of nasal breathing;
  • abundant mucus, sometimes with pus;
  • violation of smell;
  • pain in the maxillary sinuses and forehead.

Sinusitis of the maxillary sinus acute flow in the mild form usually does not require any special treatment. Therapy in this case is symptomatic. If clinical signs intensify, the disease lasts more than 5 days – a worsening of sinusitis. The patient’s condition worsens the symptoms intensify, accompanied by pain syndrome. With acute unilateral, bilateral, maxillary sinusitis is gradually transformed into a more severe form.

In the case of acute sinusitis the symptoms are more pronounced:

  • high temperature (above 38° C);
  • very pronounced headache;
  • General intoxication of the organism;
  • swelling of the face.

Advanced cases can lead to dangerous intracranial complications of acute sinusitis. Sometimes a heavy infection can be fatal. Therefore, the treatment of acute sinusitis should deal only with an experienced ENT doctor.

Possible complications if untreated

All developing complications during the course of sinusitis doctors are divided into two groups.

Problems with the respiratory system:

  • the spread of the inflammatory process in the tonsils and the lower part of the larynx;
  • bronchitis, pneumonia;
  • the development of otitis;
  • the transition of the disease from the acute form of chronic;
  • the spread of infection in the adjacent sinuses.

Pathology of other body systems:

  • inflammation of the meninges, the development of meningitis, encephalitis;
  • problems with the joints, rheumatoid arthritis;
  • violation of kidney function;
  • inflammation of the heart muscle (myocarditis);
  • blood poisoning.

It is worth noting that chronic maxillary sinusitis is quite difficult to distinguish from ordinary colds. Among the reasons that contribute to the transition of the disease in chronic form are: the refusal of treatment of acute sinusitis, failure to follow doctor’s recommendations and reduced immunity.

How to treat acute sinusitis?

What to do if you have acute sinusitis? In contrast to the therapy of chronic diseases, treatment of acute is quite simple. In this case, apply antibiotic and vasoconstrictor drugs. No less effective are traditional methods, as well as additional treatments (inhalations, rinsing).

Medication

The treatment of acute maxillary sinusitis in most cases occurs on an outpatient basis. Therapy depends on the causes that triggered the disease. However, the main focus of treatment is the removal of swelling of the mucous membrane to increase the lumen of the anastomoses. The result of the accumulated pus is starting to come out, freeing the sinuses and making breathing easier.

Furthermore, you need a mild anti-bacterial therapy.

For these purposes antibiotics easy steps:

  • “Amoxicillin”;
  • “Macroben”;
  • “Azithromycin”.

In addition to antibiotic therapy is also appointed vasoconstrictor drops: “Naphazoline”, “Xylitol”, as well as drugs that help to restore the inflamed mucosa. To accelerate the regeneration of tissues will help natural drop “Pinosol”, “Solcoseryl” (ointment).

Treatments: lavage, pulmonary

To cleanse the nasal passages of accumulated mucus usually prescribed drops and sprays based on sea water. Such saline solutions help dilute the pathological secretion, relieve nasal congestion. In addition, these drugs contribute to the restoration of the mucosa, which helps to speed up recovery.

Among medicinal products with sea salt are considered most effective:

  • “Aqua Maris”;
  • “Other means”;
  • “Kviks”;
  • “Otrivin Sea”.

Another effective remedy to ease the patient’s condition in the sinus, I think: “Dolphin”. This is a special kit for the lavage of the nasal passages, which includes the device and a sachet to prepare the solution. It also helps to thin the mucus and promotes its exit from the sinuses.

Not less effective in this disease inhaled treatments. However, it should be remembered that steam inhalation with sinus is strictly prohibited. In this case, it is preferable to use a nebulizer and special solutions. To facilitate the patient’s condition can be carried out inhalation with sodium chloride (saline), alkaline solutions, antibiotics (only on prescription).

Traditional recipes from acute inflammation of the maxillary sinuses

Alternative treatments for sinusitis can be used only after consultation with your doctor. Many of them are really effective. Treatment of disease at home if it doesn’t help to get rid of the disease, it greatly facilitates the patient’s condition.

Good washing decoction of chamomile, solution of dry menthol, propolis. Not less effective recognized cold inhalations with essential oils. However, to treat thus sinusitis at home only in the absence of allergic reactions to these components.

Cyclamen

One of the most effective folk recipes for the treatment of sinusitis in adults are considered drops, made from the root of cyclamen. To do this, dug up the tuber is well washed, cleaned and milled. From the resulting mass squeezed juice and diluted it with boiled water in a ratio of 1:5. Bury home remedy 3 drops one-time.

Most often, this remedy is prescribed for acute bilateral maxillary sinusitis. The result of the action of cyclamen occurs reflex the cleansing of the nasal passages, which helps to speed up recovery. Similar drops have slight anti-inflammatory effect.

Tonic

In the period of acute illness, you can use homemade recipes to boost immune system and overall strengthening of the body. Effective teas with raspberries, currants, strong broth hips. To reduce inflammation you can take an infusion of calendula.

Tea made from raspberry or currant is prepared as follows. A tablespoon of fresh or dry raw pour hot water and insist in a water bath without boiling for 15-20 minutes. Cooled broth strain and drink as tea three times a day. It is possible to improve palatability and enhance healing properties to add to the drink a teaspoon of honey.

To prepare an infusion of marigold is also easy. Tablespoon flowers plants pour boiling water and infuse for at least an hour. Further, the tool strain and take half a Cup morning and evening.

When you need surgery?

In most cases of acute sinusitis responds well to medical treatment. However, in advanced cases may require surgical intervention. The operation consists in puncture of the sinus wall and the leaching out of her purulent content. As a result, thanks to the artificial cleansing of the cavity, the recovery occurs much faster.

Without the puncture it is impossible to do if:

  • the result of accumulation of pus began to develop other complications;
  • was discovered infected cysts in the cavities of the nose and sinuses;
  • the infection spreads to adjacent organs;
  • in a patient diagnosed with an abnormal structure of the facial part of the skeleton.
Prevention – General provision

To prevent the development of sinusitis actually not that hard. It is necessary daily to carry out hygienic procedures (washing of the nasal passages) to eliminate enter the body pathogenic bacteria and viruses. Contribute to strengthening of protective forces-especially in the season of colds can immunomodulatory and immunostimulatory drugs. In addition, you should lead a healthy lifestyle, to stop Smoking, to include in the diet plenty of fruits and vegetables.

If you avoid getting the flu or SARS failed, you must together with your doctor to carefully monitor the course of disease to prevent complications. To neglect even the common cold is not worth it. The wrong approach to the treatment of such diseases or complete rejection therapy often results in complications such as sinusitis.

Also the prevention of acute sinusitis can be considered seasonal vaccination to prevent the development of viral diseases and as a result, their complications.

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