20.10.2020

Feeding newborns in the early days

During a rush of milk, a woman has painful sensations, so I want to give the baby a breast more often to release the poured breast. Since the newborn sleeps a lot, the question arises of how to wake the newborn for feeding.

The need for feeding may arise immediately after birth or some time after birth. In the early days, colostrum forms in the woman’s chest. Three days later, colostrum in the chest of the woman who gave birth is replaced by milk. It rushes to the mammary glands, the woman’s chest begins to “burst” from the milk arrived.

If not expressed, then after a few feedings, its amount will return to normal, and will correspond to the needs of the child.

Here are some tips on how to do this:

  • Give breasts to a sleeping baby. If an hour and a half has passed after feeding, then the baby can begin to suck without waking up.
  • You can do massage of the palms and feet of the baby. Massaging touches stimulate brain activity, increase blood flow and lead to awakening.
  • Turn on the music – at first quietly and then begin to amplify its sounds. You can not turn on the background music sharply. This will scare the baby and cause a sharp cry. The volume of sounds should increase gradually.
  • To swaddle a baby, contact with cool air will cause him to awaken.

How much milk does the baby eat at one time?

How much a newborn should eat in one feeding is determined by its age (1 or 4 weeks). Its quantity can be measured by weighing the baby before and after feeding. From the difference in the results obtained, the increase that the baby ate is obtained.

In medicine, the following standards are used, which determine how much a newborn eats in one feeding:

  • 1st day – 10 g per feed, for only 10-12 feedings 100-120 ml per day.
  • 2nd day – a single dose – 20 g, daily – 200-240 ml.
  • 3 days – for one feeding – 30 g, per day – 300-320 ml.

So by the 10th day of life, the feeding dose is increased to 100 g at a time and up to 600 ml of milk per day. Such standards last up to 1.5 months. The total amount of milk eaten is 1/5 of the baby’s weight. At 2 months, the baby eats 120-150 g at a time and up to 800 ml per day (1/6 of its weight).

Frequent feedings are normal

Free feeding of the baby suggests that he can choose the time intervals between feedings, their duration and the amount of milk eaten. These factors depend on the nature and characteristics of the child.

There are children who eat quickly and a lot, while in a hurry, often choke with milk, after feeding – they burp. There are other children who suck slowly, often looking up from their breasts and looking thoughtfully at the surrounding area. All people are different, also different children and their way of eating.

How often to feed a newborn with breast milk

The recommendations of pediatricians twenty years ago, how to feed a newborn, spoke of the mandatory adherence to the regime – to feed the baby no more than after 3-4 hours. Do not hold near the chest for longer than 10-15 minutes and be sure to decant the remaining milk. It is good that these recommendations have gone down in history. They caused too many eating disorders in children and mastitis in mothers.

Modern pediatricians do not set a rigid framework for how much time should elapse between feedings. The frequency of feeding is determined by the needs of the child and cannot be standard for all occasions.

If the baby was active, moved a lot of arms and legs, swam in the bathroom – he spent a lot of energy. When feeding, he will suck out more milk. If the time between feedings was calm, the baby was sleeping or lying in a bed, did not actively communicate with the outside world – most likely, his appetite will be modest, since the need for food has not reached a maximum.

How to feed a newborn: postures of mom and baby

When feeding a baby, you can sit, stand, lie, settle down in any poses that are convenient for mom and baby. The feeding position should be convenient, since the time for this is quite long – from 20 to 50 minutes a day.

  1. Lying on its side – mom and baby are facing each other. In this position, it is convenient to feed that breast, which is located below. If necessary, the mother can lean forward a little and give the baby the chest that is taller.
  2. Laying with a jack – mom and baby can be located on the couch (bed) with their heads to each other (with their feet in opposite directions). How to feed a newborn lying – next to or jack – depends on the time of day. At night it is more convenient to lie next to the baby. In the afternoon, you can use both poses.
  3. In a reclining chair – a baby on top. In this position, it is recommended to feed those mothers who have too much milk. Placing the baby a little on top reduces the flow of milk and allows the baby to suck out as much as necessary.
  4. Sitting – mother sits, the baby lies on her knees and takes her breasts as if “from below.” Mom holds the baby with her hand, bending her at the elbow. In order for the baby to be higher and reach the chest, a pillow is placed on the mother’s lap.
  5. Sitting from under the arm – for such feeding a sofa and a large pillow are needed. The baby is placed on a pillow so that it is at the level of her mother’s chest. Mother sits down on the couch and takes the baby as if “from under the arm.”
  6. Standing – this option of feeding is also possible, especially if you walk on the street in a sling.

It is important to know: when feeding, the lobule of the mammary gland, in the direction of which the baby’s chin is directed, is most emptied. Therefore, to fully exhaust the milk from the gland, it is necessary to have the baby in various ways at each feeding.

How to properly apply a newborn for feeding

The health of the mother’s breast gland depends on the correct application of the baby. To prevent injury to the nipple, it is necessary to insert the entire areola into the mouth. How to breastfeed a newborn?

Consider the recommendations of doctors:

  • The baby’s mouth should be wide open (as with yawning). The mouth opens wider if you lift your face up (do this experiment with yourself – lower your face and open your mouth, and after that – lift it and also open your mouth). Therefore, for proper feeding, position the baby so that he slightly lifts his face to your chest.
  • With proper grip, the nipple should touch the baby’s palate. This attachment is called asymmetric. The nipple is not directed to the center of the mouth, but to the upper palate.
  • The asymmetry of the attachment is visible from the outside – the part of the alveoli that is under the lower lip is completely inside the mouth. That part of the alveoli, which is located behind the upper lip, may not be fully taken.
  • With proper sucking, the baby’s tongue “hugs” the nipple and alveoli from below. In this position, he does not compress the chest and does not create pain. The tongue protrudes from the mouth further than it is located at the usual time (without feeding). The tongue protrudes poorly with a shortened bridle (skin membrane under the tongue). Therefore, if feeding the baby is painful for you, show the baby to the doctor. If the bridle is too short, a surgical incision is performed.
  • It is necessary to take away the baby’s chest when he releases it. If he no longer sucks, but simply lies and holds the nipple in his mouth, give him the opportunity to rest. Pulling out the nipple by force is not worth it. If you really want to get up, you can easily press on the baby’s chin with your finger or insert a little finger into the corner of your mouth. The baby will open his mouth, and you can take the chest without pain.

When feeding, the baby’s head should not be fixed firmly. He should be able to break away from the nipple and make it clear to his mother that he was full.

Regurgitation after feeding: causes and fears

Regurgitation accompanies almost every feeding of an infant under the age of 3 months. Sometimes regurgitation is so strong that milk comes out of the stomach not only through the mouth, but also through the nose. Normally, a baby’s regurgitation should not exceed 10-15 ml (these are 2-3 tablespoons).

Why does a newborn spit up after feeding? The reason is the ingestion of air and its subsequent exit from the baby’s esophagus. In order for the baby to burp immediately after feeding, you need to hold it vertically. Otherwise, belching will take place in a lying position, along with air milk will be thrown out of the baby’s stomach.

Some babies swallow too much air, then burping occurs right during feeding. Such crumbs must be torn off from food in the middle of sucking and kept upright for several minutes.

We list the causes of regurgitation in newborns after feeding:

  • During sucking, the baby rested his nose against his chest, breathed through his mouth and therefore swallowed air.
  • For children on artificial feeding – too big a hole in the nipple.
  • Too much milk or not enough small stomach. The child overeats and returns part of the milk back (the part that he can’t absorb).
  • Digestion problems: a lack of bacteria in the stomach and intestines, colic, which increases gas formation.
  • Lactose intolerance.
  • Disorders of the central nervous system, birth injuries.

In order not to stimulate regurgitation, after feeding the baby does not need to slow down. It is necessary to put it on a barrel or back and let it rest quietly for 15-20 minutes. The best option is to feed the baby before falling asleep.

Regurgitation in newborns after feeding should not cause concern if:

  • The child is steadily gaining weight.
  • The baby does not have moodiness, irritability or lethargy.
  • After regurgitation, the baby does not cry.
  • Milk from spitting up is white without a pungent odor.
If the baby spits up yellow milk with an unpleasant odor, this requires medical advice and treatment.
Hiccups after feeding: why arises and what to do

Hiccups after feeding in newborns are not a pathology. It arises as a result of contractions of the diaphragm – a muscle located between the digestive organs and the lungs. Why does the newborn hiccup after feeding?

Muscle contractions occur due to pressure on the walls of the stomach. With the formation of gazikov or swallowing air, the stomach bursts.

Therefore, hiccups often occur before regurgitation.

If the baby burps – the hiccups pass.

We list the factors that contribute to hiccups:

  • A newborn hiccups after feeding if it eats too hastily and swallows a lot of air.
  • Newborns hiccup during overfeeding. If too much food is eaten, the stomach presses on the diaphragm and causes it to contract.
  • The baby hiccups if he has frequent intestinal colic. They are accompanied by the formation of gases that accumulate in the intestines and stomach. When feeding, gaziki stretch the walls of the stomach and press on the diaphragm.

What to do if a newborn has hiccups after feeding:

  • Do not worry. Almost never hiccups are a sign of a disease or other pathology. As a rule, it passes with age, when the baby’s stomach becomes more spacious.
  • Next time – do not feed so much, feed calmly and let it lie on your stomach before feeding (prevent flatulence).
Artificial feeding: what mixtures to feed

Artificial feeding of infants must be avoided. Breast milk is incomparably healthier, more nutritious, it is better absorbed and rarely causes allergies. The best choice is to feed your newborn baby with breast milk.

The transition to artificial mixtures is justified only in case of a mother’s disease, which does not allow her to breast-feed her baby. The question of which mixture is better to feed the newborn is solved after analysis of its composition (it is written on the packaging).

What can an artificial mix contain?

The basis of the mixture is whey, which has undergone hydrolysis (decomposition), demineralization and is easily absorbed in the baby’s esophagus. This mixture is called adapted, it is hypoallergenic.

Worse for a newborn is a casein-based mixture. This component is more slowly absorbed in the child’s body. Casein-based mixtures are more suitable for artificial nutrition of children after six months. They are classified as partially adapted.

It is also good if the mixture contains bifidobacteria. Such mixtures include Similak, Nestogen, Impress, Enfamil.

For children with lactose intolerance, mixtures based on soy milk (Nutria-soya, Bona-soya) are used.

What should be a feeding bottle

Are there any requirements for bottles for feeding newborns? What are the best feeding bottles for newborns?

We list what to look for when choosing a bottle:

  • The hole in the nipple should be small, the baby should “work hard” to pull the milk out of the bottle.
  • When feeding, the nipple should always be filled with milk.
  • A glass bottle is better for feeding than a plastic bottle. Glass is an inert material, while plastic is made from food grade polycarbonate. It may contain a number of components that are not entirely useful for the baby.
  • It is necessary to change the nipples every 2-3 weeks. The hole in them stretches and becomes too large. Preferred is the shape of the nipples with anti-vacuum skirt. The latex nipple is softer and cannot be boiled. Silicone – harder, better imitates breasts and easily tolerates boiling.
  • The simple shape of the bottle makes it easy to wash.
  • The special anti-colic shape of the bottle is curved and prevents the ingestion of air (by special valves). They do not let air bubbles from the bottle into the stomach.

How to bottle feed a newborn:

  1. Take the baby in his arms so that bodily contact occurs.
  2. Hold the bottle with your hands, and do not support it with pillows (so that the child does not choke).
  3. The nipple should be aimed at the palate of the baby.

Sucking from a bottle is easier than pulling milk from the mother’s breast (the mouth does not open so wide, you do not need to pull it much, suck it out). With artificial feeding, it is necessary to imitate the mother’s breast: pick up a rigid nipple, make a small hole in it.

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