When in a woman’s body is abnormal functioning of the urinary system, this is necessarily reflected in the results of a urine analysis that is easy to install already at primary diagnosis. Changes in the cellular composition of the urine can be a long time to occur completely asymptomatic, without pain or any other complaints, which complicates the timely diagnosis verification.
Urine with blood (hematuria) in women, as a rule, is a cause of the disturbance, and not in vain, because it can hide a variety of diseases, sometimes quite serious.
If we are talking about a single red blood cells in the overall analysis of the urinary sediment, this is normal as the glomerular apparatus of the kidneys can “skip” through a small amount of red blood cells in the filtering process. What to do with the appearance of blood in urine in women, what are the main causes of this standing, and how to deal with it, talk about it below.
The symptoms that you need to pay attention
There are situations where blood in the urine is the only symptom of the pathological process. In such cases, we are talking about microscopic hematuria, that is, when the presence of erythrocytes in urine can be determined only by its microscopic examination (occult hematuria). Visual urine neizmenenny or slightly changing its hue to a darker one.
In the case when the patient has expressed hematuria, the presence in urine of the red blood cells can determine with the naked eye. Such urine changes its natural color to pink or red, it defines the clots or streaks of blood, etc.
In addition to the color changes of the urinary sediment, may experience any of the following symptoms:
- frequent urge to go to a toilet “on-small” that are imperative (imperative) in nature, depriving a woman of the ability to control the process;
- emptying of the bladder can be accompanied by pain of different intensity, or other unpleasant sensations (a feeling of discomfort, fullness in the lower abdomen or in the perineum, while trying to write becomes very painful, etc.);
- woman may disturb pain in the lumbar region on one or both sides that have the same intensity throughout the day;
- hematuria is often combined with spastic pains (colic), which force the patient to rush in bed and moan from the unbearable pain;
- from the lumen of the vagina or urethra abnormal discharge appear of a different nature (mucous, purulent, cheesy, etc.) that bring discomfort, stinging or itching;
- increased body temperature, symptoms of intoxication (lethargy, malaise, decreased performance, headache, etc.);
- the woman may complain of unexplained weakness, night sweats, weight loss, etc.;
- during intercourse can be unpleasant or painful sensations.
The main causes of hematuria
As a rule, the appearance of urine with blood is caused by pathological processes in the organs of the urinary system, but there are other causes of this condition, which are discussed below.
Pathology of the urinary system – the main cause of hematuria
Inflammatory processes in the kidneys, bladder or urethra
The introduction of an infectious agent may cause inflammation in the tissues of the kidneys (pyelonephritis), bladder (cystitis) or urethra (urethritis).
When pyelonephritis becomes the main complaints of the pain on the side of the affected kidney, fever, and other manifestations of intoxication, a change in the color of urine, etc.
Cystitis woman complains of a constant urge to urinate, accompanied by sharp pains, and pain, while the volume of urine is very scanty, etc.
Urethritis is characterized by the appearance of unpleasant secretions from the lumen of the urethra and dysuric disorders of different severity.
Erythrocytes in the urinary sediment may indicate the promotion of sand or stones in the urinary tract that causes damage to the walls lining the ureter, the bladder and the urethra.
A typical manifestation of ICD is the attack of renal colic (severe pain syndrome), or less intense nause-dragging pain in the lumbar region on the affected side.
Appearance urine color blood in ICD speaks of gross hematuria and requires surgery
Injuries of the urinary system
Such manipulations as urethroscopy, cystoscopy, catheterization and other, can lead to trauma of the walls of the urethra or bladder. While hematuria is of short duration and are not much concerned about the patient.
The greatest danger to the health of women represent injuries to the urinary, their tears, crushing, etc.
The condition of such patients are usually heavy, they need immediate surgical care. In the urine they appear ligustri the streaks of blood that indicates the beginning of massive bleeding.
The appearance of blood in the urine should always alert the doctor on the subject of cancer, especially if we are talking about an elderly woman who had previously considered themselves completely healthy.
Often microscopic hematuria is the only symptom of tumors of benign or malignant origin. Therefore, preventive screening in women older than 40 years should be regular and compulsory.
The symptoms of the cancer process in the organs of the urinary tract are not always specific, which often leaves them without proper attention. The patient can present a complaint to a causeless weakness, apathy, weight loss, sweating, etc.
Pain and urination disorders occur much later, when the tumor process in the kidneys or bladder steadily progressing
A disease such as endometriosis, occurs in practice, the gynecologist often. It has a genetic predisposition and occurs in women of reproductive age on the background of decreased immune status.
The disease is a proliferation of cells of endometrium (inner layer of uterus) outside of their anatomical location.The endometrium is able to grow all the layers of the uterus, go to the ovaries and fallopian tubes, and adjacent organs: the bladder and the rectum (which is why the blood appears in the urine and feces).
Patients with endometriosis complain of associated with menstrual cycle (periods become very long, irregular and abundant), pain syndrome, which is almost a permanent character, etc.
During pregnancy a woman’s body undergoes tremendous restructuring hormonal and physiological nature. All organs and systems of the body begin to work with a vengeance, the same applies to kidney and its functions.
The reason for the hematuria in women who are in the “position” may be the following factors:
- relapse of diseases of the urinary system, which had women to gestation, or their debut on the background of pregnancy (e.g., pyelonephritis);
- hormonal (imbalance of the 1st trimester);
- increased intra-abdominal pressure, effect on kidneys, ureters or bladder by the growing uterus.
Symptoms such as blood in the urine of women during pregnancy, require special attention and immediate treatment, because there is a risk of miscarriage, intrauterine fetal hypoxia, delay its growth and premature labor
Long-term use of anticoagulants
Taking drugs that have the ability to thin the blood, must undergo regular inspection (indicators of blood coagulation), otherwise there is a risk of increased bleeding.
Most often we are talking about a long and uncontrolled use of anticoagulants, as well as excess of their therapeutic dosage.
In these patients there is a “bloody” urine that indicates the beginning of bleeding from the urinary organs, and bleeding is observed at other sites (nose, uterus, gastrointestinal tract, etc.). On the skin and mucous membranes appear large hematoma, the blood can flow into the joint cavity or the pleura.
Algorithm for the diagnosis of hematuria
In order that the doctor could understand why a woman’s blood discovered the blood, it is necessary to conduct a series of laboratory and instrumental investigations. This means that hematuria is a symptom that requires immediate examination by the patient.
All the patients were administered the following treatments:
- General analysis of blood and urine (measured all the components included in their composition, the presence of inflammation, signs of anaemia, etc.);
- biochemical analysis of blood and urine (determine the level of protein and its fractions, creatinine, urea and other indicators as needed);
- urine analysis according to Nechyporenko (allows to estimate the quantitative content of erythrocytes, leucocytes and cylinders in urine, the method is more reliable than clinical examination);
- a urine culture on nutrient media with determination of antibiotic sensitivity of the identified pathogen (infectious processes in organs of the urinary system);
- review and excretory radiography of the kidneys and urinary tract;
- Ultrasound of the urogenital system (this study allows to reveal tumors in women of reproductive and older rocks, to assess the degree of urodynamic disorders, etc.);
- endoscopy of the bladder (cystoscopy) and the urethra (urethroscopy), is required for precision studies of the organ, biopsy and hemostasis of the affected vessel;
- additional investigations if indicated (CT or MRI of the genitourinary system and others).
Thanks dvuhtonnoy the sample can be assumed the source of the bleeding before the start of instrumental diagnostics
The principles of treatment of patients with hematuria
You need to understand that the treatment of patients with blood in urine should be conducted only under the supervision of a doctor, who will determine the root cause of this condition and prescribe appropriate therapy. Need to be treated not the symptom (hematuria), and the disease behind it.
During pregnancy it is important in dynamics to monitor the status of women, and when any bloody discharge, promptly admit her to the hospital gynecological.
For the treatment of infectious processes of the applied drugs from different pharmacological groups such as antibiotics, antiviral, antifungal, anti-microbial agents and others.
If we are talking about the overdose of anticoagulants, it is a correction dose or full cancellation
Hematuria, which occurred against a background of invasive interventions (for example, after cystoscopy or catheterization), as a rule, spontaneously. To accelerate the process of healing is not forbidden anti-inflammatory drugs in therapeutic dosages.
For large stones that cover the lumen of the pelvis or of the ureter and do not go alone, endometriosis, injuries, and ruptures organs, malignant growths or other volumetric processes, have resorted to surgery.
Urine with blood is a symptom that requires immediate treatment to the doctor even if the patient’s condition remains satisfactory, and other complaints are missing. Self-treatment may cause deterioration and progression of the underlying disease, which largely determines his future forecast.