Abnormalities should be considered bruises that appear without physical impact.
Bruises in a healthy person most often occur due to shock or other physical effects on soft tissues (for example, if you pinch your finger). As a result of an injury, small vessels are damaged under the skin, and blood from them enters the soft tissues, forming a hematoma – subcutaneous bleeding. To stop it, the body secretes hemoglobin, a protein that carries oxygen to organs and tissues. It is because of him, by the way, that the initial color of the damage is red-crimson. Then hemoglobin is destroyed. The color of the bruise changes – from red to blue-violet, then to yellow, brown, and so on until complete resorption. The color change is due to the elements contained in the blood.
Bruises should not appear:
- with a slight physical impact (if bruises appear from a slight compression of the wrists – this is not the norm);
- with power loads, if you follow the exercise technique;
- with high blood pressure – in this case, blood thinners are often prescribed, but even with high (260) blood pressure, subcutaneous bleeding should not occur.
When to watch out
First of all, it’s worth it to sound the alarm if the bruise does not appear due to physical impact (especially if there are many such bruises). An unusual color, size, shape and location should be on alert: for example, all bruises appear only on the limbs. Any such education requires the consultation of a general practitioner or general practitioner. Especially if subcutaneous bleeding is accompanied by blurred vision and impaired coordination.
What diseases can cause bruising
The most common causes of bruises – lack of rutin and vitamin C . With their deficiency, the strength of the vessels decreases and bruises can occur in some places. For example, a lack of routine leads to a disruption in collagen production, respectively, the vessels become more fragile, their permeability increases: normal compression of the hand can lead to bruising.
The tendency to subcutaneous hemorrhage in girls may be associated with the use of hormonal contraceptives.
Another reason – a lack of vitamin K . Without it, blood coagulation processes worsen.
Less commonly, bruising is associated with disease. For example, with hemorrhagic vasculitis, the body begins to produce antibodies to its own vessels, as a result of which the walls of the vessels are destroyed. Small hemorrhages may occur both in the limbs and in the area of the internal organs. A provocateur can be a chronic infection or prolonged use of antibiotics.
There are diseases that are associated with impaired platelet function – the cells responsible for blood coagulation. The reason is either their lack or disruption of their work.
In addition, the patient may have a deficiency of some coagulation factors, this happens, for example, with hemophilia . However, such diseases are characterized by large hemorrhages (for example, in joints), and they are usually detected even in childhood.
Rendu-Osler disease may be involved in bruising . This is a violation of the structure of the choroid, as a result of which small blood spots similar to asterisks can form under the skin. These stars can be a symptom of varicose veins .
Bruising is sometimes a symptom of cancer (such as leukemia) and hormonal disruptions . Bruising can result from regular use of steroid medications that are used to treat autoimmune diseases.
More hematomas can occur with rheumatism, kidney and blood diseases .
Which doctor to contact
A narrow-profile specialist, a hematologist, is engaged in blood. Initially, you can consult a general practitioner or general practitioner. He will appoint the necessary examinations and, if necessary, will refer to the right specialist. For diagnosis, a routine blood test is prescribed in the first place, in which you can determine the overall level of platelets and hemoglobin. An additional biochemical blood test will allow you to evaluate the work of the liver and kidneys. You will need a blood coagulation test. If necessary, an additional ultrasound of the abdominal cavity and pelvic organs is performed. The further direction of examinations and therapy is determined by the doctor based on the results of the tests.