Toothache always significantly reduces the quality of human life. The pain can be mild and unbearable, constant and occur periodically, aching, pulling, shooting and throbbing. To understand why teeth hurt, you should determine all of the possible causes of this condition.
Pain can be due to pathologies associated with the teeth themselves, and can occur due to lesions of other structures of the body (e.g., bone, or nerve fibres).
Tooth decay is the first stage
Caries is the disease which provokes tooth pain more often, and is a process of demineralization of dental hard tissues and their subsequent destruction. This pathology is most common among adults. According to who, caries is suffering from 80 to 98% of the population all over the world.
The reasons that could lead to the development of the disease, the following:
- Violation of oral hygiene (improper and irregular cleaning of teeth);
- Error in the diet with a deficit of minerals.
- Hereditary disease of enamel, for example, hypoplasia or aplasia of the enamel;
- The poor quality of drinking water and food;
- Adverse environmental living conditions;
- The predominance in the diet carbohydrate foods;
- Disturbances in the functioning of the body and malfunctions of the immune system.
The intensity of the dental pain depends on how deep the decay has struck the tooth tissue. So, a superficial caries pain does not occur the first subjective sensations appear in the middle and deep caries.
Most often, sharp pain occurs in humans in contact with the damaged surface of the tooth material cold, sour or sweet food. That is a provoking factor becomes mechanical, thermal or chemical influences. When this factor is eliminated, the pain subsides. The appearance of spontaneous pain in the carious process is not observed, if we are talking about a superficial and middle caries. When a cavity reaches the pulp, pain can start to bother the person on a regular basis, amplifying the night. Than the neglect of the process, the longer time would be painful after any impact.
Pulpitis – the second stage of caries
Pulpitis is an inflammation of the soft tissues, which are vascular-nervous formations of a tooth. Cause the development of pulpitis become pathogenic micro-organisms, mostly staphylococci and streptococci.
Pulpitis always accompanied by severe toothache that disturbs people’s rest, and when exposed to the tooth of the stimuli. Especially tooth is sensitive to thermal shock. To pulpitis characterized by pain, aggravated at night.
The untreated pulpitis leads the carious process, or poorly sealed teeth. In such favorable conditions, bacteria multiply, and the results of their vital activity cause the development of pulpitis.
There are several types of pulpitis, for which a common symptom is the lifelong or recurring tooth pain:
- Acute focal pulpitis. For this type of disease is characterized by paroxysmal pain, which have distinct localization and occur with long periods of calm. The pain is not long, appears as a reaction to the thermal stimulus. At night it grows, that allows to suspect the involvement in the pathological process of the pulp
- Acute diffuse pulpitis. With this type of disease the pain is prolonged, and the periods of calm short. The enhanced intensity of pain during the night’s rest is the main difference between acute focal and acute diffuse pulpitis. Particularly strong feelings in the case when the person is in a horizontal position. Give pain in different areas, depending on where the damaged tooth. When exposed to thermal stimuli, an acute pain response, however, may decrease pain when exposed to cold tooth;
- Chronic fibrous pulpitis. Pain when exposed to irritants, the weak don’t last long. Spontaneous pain, that is, without the influence of a provoking factor for this type of pulpitis are rare. Cold tooth responds slowly, may cause discomfort at the change of weather conditions. During a survey in the dentist’s office, patients often point to the fact that earlier they had signs characteristic of acute pulpitis;
- Chronic gangrenous pulpitis. This state is expressed in the painful reaction of the tooth when exposed to high temperatures or other thermal stimuli. Pain are rare, are spontaneous in nature. From the mouth of a patient comes to an unpleasant putrid smell;
- Chronic hypertrophic pulpitis. The pathology of pain is practically absent, they occur rarely and have severe intensity. Most often, the pain occurs during chewing of food. Previously, the patients experienced acute pain inherent in a diffuse acute pulpitis, but treatment was not carried out.
It is also possible for painless pathology, which is often characteristic of chronic forms of pulpitis. However, during the acute sufferer will experience severe pain. In addition, untreated pulpitis in danger of pulp necrosis, as well as the development of periodontitis.
Periodontitis – the third stage of caries
Periodontitis is an inflammation of the connective tissue, which is called the “periodontium”. This tissue surrounds the tooth root, clasping it near the top. The periodontium is a lot of nerve endings, lymphatic and blood vessels, thanks to them provide food to the tooth. The periodontal performs several important functions and assumes the load during chewing food, distributing it uniformly over the jaw.
Inflammation of the periodontium always is accompanied by severe pain that has a tendency to increase even by a slight touch. Often the patient is not only swollen gums, but and cheeks, and increased body temperature.
The acute phase of periodontitis is expressed in the following symptoms:
- The pain becomes stronger during attempts to bite or chew food, has a pulsating character, its intervals of calm minor;
- Man feels like a bad tooth starts to grow.
If necessary treatment is not available, the acute periodontitis progresses, causing the following symptoms:
- The pain grabs the sides of the face;
- The body temperature rises;
- The gums react with a sharp pain at the slightest to her touch;
- Chin and submandibular lymph nodes are increased, begin to ache;
- Perhaps the appearance of purulent discharge.
Inflammation may continue for several days. If pus comes out, the severity of clinical signs decreases. Sometimes, acute periodontitis becomes chronic. This is a severe disease, which is able to change the position of the teeth, increasing their mobility. The gums start to bleed at any time can develop an abscess.
Complications of chronic inflammation of the periodontium to be the next condition that can cause severe pain:
- Dental granuloma. It is an inflammation of the periodontium in a limited area. A granuloma is shaped like a small ball, which is at the root of the tooth. For granulomas is long, often asymptomatic, and the acute stage is characterized by pain and swelling of the gums in the place where a granuloma is localized. Acute tooth pain occurs when the abscess granuloma, gingiva, in place of the suppuration becomes red, swells, the tooth darkens. Between the gum and the tooth may be pus. General condition of the patient is violated, the body temperature increases. Suppurative complication of dental granulomas threatens the development of the phenomenon of odontogenic abscess, this condition is better known as the flux. If a granuloma is a chronic asymptomatic, it can degenerate into a cyst of the jaw;
- Flux. Dental abscess is a suppuration of the periosteum, which is provoked by pyogenic microorganisms. Condition manifested severe pains, always has an acute onset. The body temperature rises to high values, a person experiences weakness, chills. Toothache itself with a headache that intensifies with each passing hour. I hate it more than 24-72 hours is not possible. The pain becomes so strong that deprives people of opportunities, even one minute of rest. From the affected side swelling, redness of the tissues. Even a slight touch is reflected intense pain. In parallel, there is lymphadenitis. The flux medical care should be of high quality and timely, as the state threatens the development of sepsis with a lethal outcome;
- Root cyst. The root of the cyst is a complication of granulomas and is a round tumor, formed in bone tissue. Possible completely asymptomatic, the existence of cysts, but its inflammation having severe pain, which are particularly intense during chewing of food. In addition, infection of the cyst provokes swelling, bulging of the gingival wall, hyperemia;
- Fistula. Fistula is a hole that appears in the tissues of the tooth around its root. In the formation of a fistula acute dental pain the person does not feel as purulent contents comes out. However, painful feelings are present and sometimes gain high intensity. Often on the background of inflammation of the body temperature rises, the possible exit of pus into the mouth or through the cheek, if there is damage to the facial tissue. The tooth may begin to postebatsya, the gums in the affected area becoming crimson, swollen. The mouth of the patient the unpleasant smell;
- Cellulitis. The most dangerous complication of periodontitis is considered to be a cellulitis. The infection gets into the internal organs. Soft tissue in the area of the inflammatory process, swelling, no appetite, increased body temperature. The patient with cellulitis not able to fully open his mouth, could not move her tongue, to fully swallow and eat. In the result of pronounced edema of the face observed its asymmetry. The pain may radiate to the jaw and neck. Cellulitis could provoke a lethal outcome.
Sometimes tooth pain may occur because of difficulty eruption of wisdom teeth. Pericoronitis happens when the clogging with food particles mucous lining penetrate the crown of the wisdom tooth. Upon decomposition of the food remnants develops inflammation that is accompanied by pain and swelling.
The pericoronitis may be complicated by suppuration, resulting in the following symptoms:
- The process of chewing becomes painful;
- Give pain in the temporal part of the ear;
- The body temperature rises;
- Submandibular lymph nodes increase;
- When pressed on the mucous hood formed above the tooth, there is a sharp pain and the pus.
Tooth pain can arise due to tooth sensitivity. This happens when exposed to different stimuli.
Hypersensitivity can be triggered by the following reasons:
- The exposure of dentin in the cervical area of the tooth;
- Wedge-shaped and erosive lesions of the tooth tissue;
- Metabolic substances in the body, first of all it concerns violations of the mineral metabolism;
- Diseases of the nervous system;
- Endocrine pathology.
To establish the true cause of sensitive teeth is only possible dentist’s office.
Cracked tooth enamel
If the tooth enamel has no damage, as a rule, it is insensitive to any stimuli. Tooth pain while taking hot or cold food may occur because of cracking. Cracks can occur due to external influences, for example, when the alternate admission of hot and cold food, in the injury of a tooth as a result of mechanical impact on him.
The deeper the crack in the tooth, so it is more noticeable. The pain that it provokes, at times indistinguishable from the pains caused by tooth decay. The cracks of the tooth enamel without attention should not, they must be examined by a dentist and subjected to appropriate therapy.
Trauma to the teeth
Tooth pain is always accompanied by injury of the jaw.
Injuries can be of the following nature:
- Injury, which is the most easy form of damage and can pass on their own;
- The dislocation is accompanied by a complete or partial displacement of the tooth;
- The fracture, which may affect the dental crown and root.
Dentists say that the sooner the patient seeks dental care after the injury of the tooth, the higher the chance to save it.
Dental pain caused by other diseases
It is known that not always the tooth pain is triggered by dental disease.
It is possible that the pathological influence has been adjacent to the tooth tissues and organs:
- Neuralgia of ternary nerve. Frequently in neuralgia of ternary nerve, a person experiences severe pain that may be mistaken for teething. However, it is impossible to stop the analgesics that causes the patient to seek help to a specialist. Treatment of ternary nerve neuralgia does neurologist;
- Otitis media. Inflammation of the middle ear pain is able to irradiate the tooth, however in this patient, increased body temperature, pain in the ear. This disease is often preceded by a flu, ORVI, quinsy, etc.;
- Cluster headaches and migraine. Not always, these types of pain are localized in the head. Perhaps their appearance in the upper jaw, closer to the eye socket. In the end, people might confuse migraine with a toothache;
- Sinusitis is an inflammatory process affecting the maxillary sinus. Their bottom is near the root tips of the teeth of the upper jaw. So the pain in the sinusitis is able to recall toothache;
- Ischemia and myocardial infarction. Known cases when these two formidable heart disease manifested in the acute pain in the left side of the mandible.
Why toothache after removal of the nerve?
The tooth after removal of the nerve can hurt for several reasons:
- Filling material was placed over the tip of the tooth root (in this case, pain can persist for six months or more);
- The channel was improperly sealed (pain will not pass until such time as the failure is corrected);
- The channel remains the tool;
- The root of the tooth was perforated at the time of his cleansing (rooting the tooth will be up to 3 weeks or more);
- The patient has an allergic reaction to the filling material;
- The channel was poorly cleaned;
- Nervous tissue the dentist did not remove completely;
- Under the seal is formed the void.
If the tooth after it was removed the nerve, it hurts for weeks or more, this clearly indicates that repeated visits to the doctor is essential.
Why toothache after fillings?
The reasons that lead to tooth pain after filling can be the following:
- Flaw the dentist cleared, the root canal is defective;
- Was used filling materials of poor quality.
- Caries recurred, since the seal has lost its properties to protect the tooth;
- To seal the patient has an allergic reaction;
- Before the cyst after the procedure for filling beginning to show themselves;
- Seal poorly adapted to the remaining teeth, causing her to squeezed and irritating the soft tissue.
If the pain after fillings persist for three days or more, then you need to re-apply for dental care.
Why a sore tooth when pressure is applied?
The tooth is pressing on it can hurt for the following reasons:
- There is increased sensitivity of teeth;
- The injury that the man himself could not notice. For example, cause pain when pressed is capable of biting the handle to open bottles with your teeth to crack nuts or hard candy, etc. In the result, the enamel may appear cracked or chipped, which can lead to pain;
- Developed inflammation of the gums;
- Arose periodontitis.
It is possible that when pressed will cause pain even in healthy at first glance of the tooth. To determine what the cause of this condition, it can only be the dentist.
Why sweet my teeth hurt?
By eating sugary foods teeth can start to react with pain.
This occurs for the following reasons:
- The enamel has cracks;
- Tooth sensitivity is improved;
- Not hurt teeth and gums;
- Caries develops.
What should I do if my teeth hurt?
What to do if my teeth hurt, can only tell a dentist after a thorough diagnosis and identifying the cause of pain. If immediately consult a specialist is not possible, then you can take pills for a toothache. Means acute pain syndrome are: Ketorol, Ketofen, Analgin, Baralgin, Ketanov, Nise, etc. it Is understood that no single drug to treat tooth not, they are all aimed at relief of pain and some medicines can help to relieve inflammation.
But to cure a tooth can only be a dentist:
- In order to get rid of tooth decaywill require removal of the affected tissue and the restoration of a tooth with the help of one or another restorative material. The better will be pre-disinfection of carious cavity, the more secure will be to keep the seal. The classical method of removal of carious tissue in middle and deep caries is the tooth preparation using a drill. Modern dentistry offers an alternative to drilling using a laser. Filling even the deepest of cavities in an advanced stage often allows to get rid of tooth pain and preserve tooth function;
- Treatment of pulpitis is similar to the treatment of caries. However, drug treatment is paid much attention, since the state requires a more thorough disinfection. For this purpose, use antiseptic solutions, antibacterial agents, and proteolytic enzymes;
- General principles of treatment of periodontitis are reduced to the use of pastes, which facilitate the resorption of existing granuloma or cyst. Also these pastes help the bone tissue to regenerate. In addition, the doctor is obliged to stop pain and remove the contents of the root canal, after which it is introduced antiseptics, enzymes and painkillers. Then the canal is sealed for a period of 24 to 72 hours. Later, when the inflammation is extinguished, the processing of the tooth and is filling. Doctors sometimes in parallel is recommended to take antibacterial drugs inside. When conservative methods to deal with periodontitis could not perform the resection of the tooth root. Resection is the radical treatment method resorted to it in rare cases;
- Granuloma of the tooth is treated conservative and surgically. Conservative therapy is to fill her cavity with whatever filling composition. Its introduction is carried out through a root canal. To eliminate the infectious process allows antibacterial therapy. As for surgery, it has previously been aimed solely at the removal of the patient’s tooth. Modern dentistry is able to offer curative treatments such as resection of a tooth root or tooth of the tooth;
- The flux treatment is immediate antiseptic treatment of the purulent center, the opening of the periosteum and its drainage with the use of antibacterial drugs;
- Root cystundergoing suppuration treated by operative method. For this purpose cystectomy. Although some cysts (non-purulent) respond well to conservative treatment;
- Treatment of dental fistulaas a complication of periodontitis, is to eliminate infection from the root canal. This infected pulp is removed and the sealed channels;
- Colocolostomy cellulitis requires complex therapy. It is sometimes possible to do without surgery, but if there is a hearth purulent fusion, then no operation is necessary. The inflamed hearth after its opening treated with antibiotics and antiseptics, and then install the drain to drain pus. Concurrently exercise therapy aimed at the removal of intoxication, conduct anti-inflammatory treatment. You will need to take restorative drugs and means aimed at increasing immunity;
- Treatment of pericoronitis requires trigenerational blockade, if there is a mixing of the jaws. When the disease occurs without complications, the pocket formed under the hood, washed with a weak solution of potassium permanganate or furatsilina. Analgesics are prescribed to relieve toothache. Excision of the hood carry out in case if conservative treatment is ineffective;
- Cracked tooth enamel can be subjected to the procedure of remineralization, it is also possible the closure of special composite materials. Often cracked teeth, hiding with veneers and Lumineers.
So, the conclusion can be only one – if a toothache, it is necessary to consult a dentist.