Tooth filling is a process of elimination of defects of hard tissues, filling of the formed pathological cavity. To perform the procedure used dental fillings – diverse in composition and characteristics of the materials, allowing to isolate the sensitive tissues of the tooth and prevent leakage to the cavity germs.
Modern dentistry has the opportunity to offer the person the recovery procedure tooth taking into account its anatomical structure, structure, color, and transparency. Thanks to the latest techniques in dental fillings, the materials used and techniques, the process is painless for the patient.
Classification of materials for dental fillings
- Classification according to the type of filling material.
- Depending on the composition, which is used to create fillings, distinguish metal and non-metal materials:
- Metal fillings are made of amalgam of pure metal or of alloys of metals.
- Non-metallic fillings can be made of special cement, plastic, ceramic. There are also non-svetootverdevayuschih and glass ionomer material for filling teeth.
- Seals for sealing of channels of tooth. To fill the canal, used the following materials: gutta-percha pins (silver and titanium), natural celery, powder for filling Cortismol, glass ionomer, polymer celery, cement on base of calcium hydroxide, polymethylsiloxane.
- Classification useful life of the seal.
Depending on the service life of the seals, are distinguished:
- Seals that are installed at the time. After a short period they will be removed. Therefore, they are made of polymer materials, of artificial dentin or dentin-paste, plastic, zinc-phosphate, steklovidnogo cement.
- Fillings for permanent use. These seals are installed after will be removed temporary seals.
Amalgam is a medical metal which is composed of tin, zinc, mercury and silver. Most often this seal is set in the far molars. Modern dentists use copper and silver amalgam in which these metals predominate.
The advantages of seals on the basis of an amalgam of the following:
- Long lifespan which can reach 15 years or more;
- Low price;
- The possibility of saving the tooth color appears if you have amalgam fillings last generations;
- Easy to install;
- Tight marginal seal.
Disadvantages of using amalgam for dental fillings:
- Low aesthetics: the seal will stand out distinctly against the background of the tooth;
- A long time curing;
- The selection of mercury vapor, from which the most suffering is not the patient himself (proven that even when wearing 10 of amalgam fillings in the body is not received mercury exceeding the maximum allowable concentration), and staff at the dental office;
- The impossibility of placing gold crowns, because amalgam is destroyed;
- Shrinkage of the seal;
- Increased conductivity.
The gold alloy for dental fillings
Seals made from metals, including precious their analogues in modern dentistry are not popular, as too visible on the teeth. While most patients to strive for the maximum of naturalness. However, those who decide to install such a seal, should know about its advantages and disadvantages.
The advantages of seals of an alloy of gold:
- Long service life;
- The increased strength.
Disadvantages of seals of an alloy of gold:
- High price for a filling;
- The inability to install with amalgam fillings.
Cements for dental fillings
Cements are widely used for the manufacture of a variety of fillings.
They are included in permanent fillings in adults, these materials sealed teeth children use of cements for the manufacture of sealing gaskets.
- Phosphate cements are not able to act as an independent material for the manufacture of seals, as they are after installation tend to shrink in volume. So between the tooth and the filling did not appear slit to avoid loose fitting seal, the zinc-phosphate cements are used only as a spacer when installing other seals, and also it is used for fixing of crowns.
- Silicate cement for filling tooth used after the pulp is to be installed laying their phosphate-cement. The fact that silicate material is not able to provide the necessary permeability and pulp, he may have a pathogenic influence. In addition, this cement will dissolve under the influence of saliva has toxic properties, so the silicate cement is a modern dental office not use.
- A combined silicate-phosphate cement has absorbed all the best qualities of the previous two cements. It sticks to the walls of the dental cavity, it is also a strong silicate cement and has the necessary transparency. Another advantage of this cement seals is that it has no conductivity. A disadvantage of seals of silicone phosphate cements are not too high aesthetic quality, low strength and poor resistance to the environment in the oral cavity, as well as the toxicity to the pulp in this connection it is necessary to use an insulating gasket. Such seals are often set free in the clinics, as they are low in cost.
- Glass ionomer is another cement which has high strength and durability. This cement adheres well to the tooth, is non-toxic. In addition, in the process of wearing such a seal, it stands out fluoride which helps protect teeth from carious destruction. However, the shortcomings are, and this modern material. It is fragile and like all other cements, has a high abrasion. In this regard, glass ionomer is used as an insulating gasket for fixing of dental inlays.
In dentistry, plastic is used as material for making temporary fillings.
Their advantages are:
- High speed solidification;
- Resistance to chemical agents;
- No irritation of the oral cavity.
The disadvantages of plastic seals is much more than positive qualities:
- Reducing the amount of fillings in the process of operation;
- Sagging of the seal;
- Quick change of the original color;
- Tooth destruction as a result of deformation of the seal.
To the plastic seals include acrylated and Carbogen.
Acroloxidae plastic is made by a domestic manufacturer and have the following advantages:
- High adhesion (adhesion to the tooth tissues);
- Snug fit to the cavity walls, negligible shrinkage;
- Easy to dosing of powder and liquid;
- Resistance to external stimuli;
- Long-term preservation of the original color.
However, despite the strength of acroloxidae, it has chemical toxicity and will eventually lead to the development of the inflammatory response under seal.
Carbogen compared to aryloxides, more dense, not so toxic, but very fragile and quickly darkens.
Ceramic fillings have a number of advantages, including:
- Increased hardness;
- The resistance of the original color;
- Maintains the original size, no shrinkage;
- Excellent aesthetic qualities.
Ceramic fillings are performed according to the type of tab that is pre-made the impression of the treated tooth. The configuration of the ceramic seal gives you the opportunity to evenly distribute the load across the tooth during chewing of food. There are several varieties of ceramic fillings: from pressed ceramics, cermets, included in their composition with zirconium oxide. One and perhaps the most significant drawback of ceramic inlays is its high cost compared with seals of other materials.
Svetotsvetovoy composite fillings
Light-curing fillings are those who are frozen in the result of exposure to light of a certain frequency. They are as close to the appearance of natural teeth of man, are practically invisible once they are installed, durable and original look perfect. The advantage of these materials is that they lend themselves perfectly polished, and their high aesthetic qualities allow to use these fillings for treating front teeth. However, over time, these seals need to be replaced, as they will shrink.
Materials for filling root canals of teeth
The root canals are sealed in the case when the tooth decay enters the stage of pulpitis. The essence of the sealing is to ensure that as closely as possible to fill the tooth canal with the selected material.
Modern dentistry can make the process painless and quick.
- Gutta-percha is the result of the processing of a material such as latex. During heating the gutta-percha becomes viscous and solidifies after cooling. This material has high bio-compatibility with tooth tissues, has low toxicity, is not absorbed, does not cause allergic reactions. If the need arises, the gutta-percha from the root canal to extract. The disadvantages of the material include the lack of bactericidal properties, the inability of the bonding material with the dentin and the difficulty of installation.
- Pins of silver in modern dentistry are less often used because it was found that they tend to oxidize and provoke a relapse of inflammation.
- The pins are made of titanium does not cause allergic reactions, very rugged, low weight and no corrosion. However, they can only be used with a slight fracture of the tooth and in the absence of the nerve.
- Natural toothpaste (celery) contain various antiseptic and antibacterial components that prevent the development of inflammation, they are easy to install and resolve for a long time. The disadvantages of sileru include the possibility of allergic reactions, the presence of toxic components. In addition, when contact with the mucosa they can cause throbbing pain.
- Polymer paste (celery) are more natural, as it does not contribute to staining of the tooth, do not dissolve in liquids, have good attachment to the walls of the channels. However, they can provoke allergic reactions, especially for patients who are prone to such manifestations.
- Cortismol is a powder that helps to eliminate the pain after its introduction into the root canal of the tooth, as it contains hormones. However, it will not be able to seal the front teeth, as it contains pigments.
- Canaan Combipac acts as antiseptic and antibacterial agents for the restorations. It perfectly isolates the channel, but the main disadvantage of its use is the long installation time.
- Glass ionomer cement for filling root canals of teeth is not well suited, as it has a low strength and let the liquid. So it’s often used for sealing primary teeth.
- Polymethylsiloxane has an excellent ability to fill even the smallest cavities, as it consists of the smallest particles. Its main disadvantage is the novelty of the material and insufficient knowledge of its effects on the body.
- Cements used for filling of tooth canals only after the application of the exclusion.
Modern methods of sealing the channels of the tooth
- Depoforez method allows to sterilize the channels, filling in all the cracks and crevices. Depoforez allows to cure even the most complex cases, for example when the canal curves, or access is difficult. Using a special tool in the channel injected medicinal substance (calcium hydroxide and copper), ensuring complete sterilization.
- Tooth filling technique obturation thermophiles using heated gutta-percha. This is a simple and reliable method of stopping of channels, however, an unpleasant consequence may be the release of the material for the sealing over the channel.Heated gutta-percha can be used for the sealing according to the following techniques:
- Injection method when the problematic section is fed gutta which temperature reaches 100 degrees (to perform the procedure may only highly qualified dentist);
- Method of vertical condensation allows three-dimensional filling of the canal, but very difficult to implement;
- Method of continuous wave similar to the method of vertical condensation, but not so long in time;
- The syringe of the introduction is a quick and convenient method of sealing the channel, but it will not be able to get to the side of the tubules.
- Method of stopping of channels with the help of cold gutta-percha.
- The method of one pin (pin made of gutta-percha in the shape of a channel);
- The method lateral condensation (to fill the channel uses multiple pins of the gutta-percha), in this case, there is a risk of root fracture of the tooth and a loose filling in his channel;
- Method of thermomechanical condensation (filled channel with rotary tool), in this case, there is a risk of tool fracture and poor filling of the root canal.
- Mummification of the channel. In this case, the pulp is treated with a large quantity of antiseptic, which stops the progression of the inflammatory process.
- Retrograde fillings– a modern method of filling root canals. To complete the procedure, use a special nozzle and gun to perform the injection. First there is the filling of the root of the selected material with the help of a retrograde movement, and then the doctor can move to the vertical fill.
Were previously filling the canals with the use of a resorcinol-formalin mixture, but this method has many side effects, and modern dentists refused it.