Dental implants is an artificially created structure consisting of several components designed for implementation in vnutripolostnoe bone. In a subsequent implant with the bone fuses (osseointegration) and prosthetics with crowns, bridge or another prosthesis.
An implant is an artificial substitute for the lost tooth roots.
Modern dentistry offers the patient a choice as types of implants, there are many.
However, they all have roughly the same structure and consist of the following components:
- The head or abutment is situated above the neck and is necessary in order to carried out fixing various designs of dentures. The abutment may be a screw, and fixation of the castle.
- The neck is located between the body and the head of the implant and is in direct contact with the mucous membrane of the gums.
- The body is introduced into the bone tissue and serves as a base for fixation of the head and neck of the implant. The body is the infrastructure of the implant, it can be represented in the form of a continuous plate, in the form of plates with holes, in the form of a self-tapping screw or cylinder, in the form of machine or tape.
- The abutment is a kind of abutment. It has the screw in the form of a cylinder. The driver is screwed for time and serves to give the gum an attractive and natural shape. Also called healing pillar, healing, the gingival cuff.
The types of implants for teeth
The types of implants for teeth there are the following:
- Endosseous implants or intraosseous plate. Plate intraosseous implants set often those patients that have thin bone. In this regard, they have no opportunity to implant traditional implant screw. Endously implant has the form of a thin plate, which later becomes the base for the installation of abatment and prosthesis. The doctor flexes it so that it will fit under the jaw of the patient. To increase the reliability of such a deep implant implanted in bone tissue.The benefits of installing the implant plate with the following:
- The low price of a plate implant, in comparison with the classical tapered implants.
- No need to build bone tissue.
The disadvantages of the installation of endosseous implants:
- Less reliable than root implants.
- The complexity of the installation procedure.
- The inability to withstand heavy loads during chewing of food that requires care from the patient. The same factor due to the unreliability of the implant and weak sustainability.
Due to the fact that the reliability of the plate implants are suffering, they are installed only when indicated.
- Tapered implants. The root feature of implants is that their design is most similar to a natural tooth root, hence their name. Root implants, in turn, may be cylindrical and screw.Root cylindrical implants have a porous surface that enables the bone tissue to grow into the implant, forming a secure grip. Thread on these implants, so the contact area between them a small bone, in comparison with a spiral design. Cylindrical implants are most often designed in classic implantation, so the process of implantation can take up to six months.Screw implants are the most common. They are equipped with a thread, which is firmly attached in the bone hole. Implants literally are rolled in the bone for what it is necessary to pre-drill. If there are any contraindications, the experts always prefer this kind of implants, because their main advantage is reliability and a high degree of survival.
Subperiosteal implants. This kind of implants is implanted under the gums mount in the jaw bone. Implant to the bone just pushed, its drilling will not be required. The design is delicate, thin, more massive, compared with classic implants.There are two methods for installing such implants. The first is the removal of the cast from the bone of the jaw. To do this, the periosteum carefully separated from the bone and make it a print, which subsequently made implant. Then it installs, and the soft tissue sutured.The second method is more high-tech. So, for the imprint with the bone surface of the jaw there is no need to make the cut. Patient enough to go through the procedure of computer tomography, the results of which will be made of metal construction.
Subperiosteally the advantages of implants include:
- The ability to install those patients that have thin bone and for some reason they have no opportunity for its extension.
- They can be installed even to those people who have expressed atrophy of the alveolar process, which greatly extends the capabilities of removable prosthetics.
The disadvantages of the installation subperiostal implants include:
- Design less reliable compared to the implanted in the jaw bone screw implants.
- The complexity of manufacturing and planning design.
- A high percentage of failures.
- Endodontically stabilized implants. This kind of implants are established in order to strengthen their own loose tooth. They are not used at its full loss, as the implantation occurs directly in the root of the tooth, through which is screwed a pin. The term endo means vnutritrubnoj.Such implants are designed to strengthen the shaken and badly damaged teeth. However, a prerequisite for its installation is the presence of at least 3 mm of healthy periodontium around the tooth root. Otherwise you will not be able to achieve a secure fastening of the tooth.
- The benefit of implants are:
- No need to perforation of the gums and mucous membranes.
- The safety of your own tooth.
- A one-step approach to treatment. That is, the implant is placed during one visit to the dentist’s office.
- Installation technology is simple and fairly painless for the patient.
- Implant allows not only to strengthen the root of the tooth, but will also serve as crowns in the future.
- Chewing load is evenly distributed over the root of the tooth without bone atrophy.
Deficiencies in the procedure were not readily available, except that in the dentist’s office must apply in a timely manner, until such time as the periodontium is maintained at least partially healthy.
- Combined implants. Combined implants may be very different from each other in design as they are made for each patient individually.You can select the following types of combined implants:
- Traditional or plate. It is a combination of root and implant plate and has the form of a thin plate, which in the middle is a screw. This is the endosseous implant, which is recommended for installation in severe bone atrophy in the mandible (its height should not be less than 6 mm, and the thickness of the alveolar bone less than 3 mm).
- Disk. It can be installed in almost any bone of the jaw, as the degree of atrophy does not have this value. Disk implants take root quickly, they can strengthen the prosthesis after a week.
- Perosseous or clinical. Such implants made in the set via the chin incision. They are recommended for use, when atrophy of the lower jaw very prominent.
Combined implants are widely spread in the modern dental practice. They are used in cases when classic implants root install is not possible. This is their main advantage.
- Vnutrisosudistye implants. Vnutrisosudistye implants is designed for those patients who have removable dentures in the upper jaw, but suffering from its excessive mobility because of atrophy of the alveolar process.Untouristy implant has two parts: one part is attached to the removable denture and the second is implanted in the mucous membrane of the mouth rug. For the clutch use constructs, which in their structure resemble buttons from clothing.The advantage of these implants is that their installation is not necessary to have the bone of a certain thickness. However, the mucous membrane should not be thinner than 1.1 mm. Vnutrisosudistye implants allow you to stop worrying about the fact that the denture is securely fixed and fly off during use. They also provide an opportunity to get rid of possible violations of speech and taste, which could be caused by wearing dentures.
- Mini implants. Mini-implants are their main distinguishing feature are small. They are represented by thin screws and removable prosthesis. To install them virtually no contraindications, they are implanted in the bone of the gums. The purpose of such implants is the maintenance of removable dentures, which on them is installed.Their advantages are:
- Removable dentures on mini-implants will stay securely in place.
- Possible installation of the prosthesis even in the absence of teeth.
- The procedure is performed under local anesthesia, does not take much time (from 30 minutes to 1 hour 30 minutes).
- The prosthesis can be installed immediately after implantation of the implants.
- Chewing with implants in the same day.
- The minimum set of contraindications.
- It is not necessary to build bone tissue.
- The lack of age restrictions.
- Low cost compared to the classical implantation.
Although these implants there is no need to remove, clean them regularly and with great care. The disadvantage of mini-implanon is that they can not install permanent dentures, since they are not designed for high loads.
How to put dental implants?
Learn about how to put dental implants in the dentist’s office, as the case may be, this procedure will vary. Some techniques give the opportunity to install them with no cutting of the gums, other techniques allow to place the implant immediately after tooth extraction, etc.
However, in General, the procedure of implantation is reduced to five sequential steps:
- Definition of indications and contraindications to the procedure. The doctor fully examines the patient, assigns delivery of necessary tests. At this stage, should be identified all the possible diseases that can be an obstacle to carrying out the implantation. It is important to pay attention not only to the state of the mouth, but the condition of the body. It seems to blood sugar, hepatitis, HIV, perform x-rays.
- If there are no contraindications, then you can proceed to the second stage which is to prepare for implantation. At this time, necessary to cure all bad teeth, replace old crowns, get rid of gum disease, etc. After that, the doctor sends the patient for a cat scan and to perform a panoramic image of the jaw. This allows to identify the presence or absence of occult disease, for example, granuloma or cyst. Snapshots also enable you to find the best place for the implant.
- Performing the surgical intervention is performed in the third stage. If there is a shortage of bone tissue, if its mass is insufficient, then perform the procedure open or closed sinus lift. This allows to increase the periodontal bone. The procedure lasts up to few hours and the process of healing can take three or more months. However, if the patient does not wish to increase the bone, certain types of implants allow to do without this procedure. The process of surgical implantation of the implant is reduced to a slit or puncture the gums with subsequent implementation of the design. Then the implant is plugged and the gums sutured. The process of healing takes up to six months, although some techniques can reduce this time to several days.
- The penultimate step is the installation of the abutment. This item will be attached to the prosthesis. 14 days prior to installing it, built a temporary healing abutment, giving it the desired shape.
- The final stage of the procedure of dental implants – orthopedic. During the fabrication of the tooth or bridge, selected their color, manufactured, and installed a prosthesis. It can take up to several hours. Immediately after installation of the prosthesis, the patient can return to normal life and start to chew food using the new artificial teeth.
Such a sequence is common to all methods of implantation. This schema must adhere to all dentists practicing in implantology.
Answers to popular questions:
- How many dental implants serve? To say exactly how much dental implants serve not be a single specialist, as this indicator is influenced by many factors, ranging from proper installation and finishing competent care for your implants. On average, the guaranteed service life of the implant ranges from 5 to 10 years, although cases are known when they served without replacement from 15 years or more.
- How much is 1 tooth implant? The price of implant depends on the manufacturer and the material from which it is made, and the complexity of the work. If you expect the average price to the implantation of a single tooth, it will range from 12 000 to 70 000 rubles.
- Is it possible dentures on implants in edentulous? Dentures on implants in edentulous possible.There are several methods of implantation:
- full implantation with the implantation 12-14 implants in both jaws and their subsequent prosthetics of dental crowns;
- is possible to install a dental bridge on implants based on the artificial teeth;
- removable dentures using mini-implants;
- the installation of a removable prosthesis with implantation of a minimum number of implants.
- Does it hurt to put the implant teeth? The process the implant is painless for the patient, as it occurs under the influence of local or General anesthesia, depending on the complexity of the operation. However, pain is an essential sensation in the postoperative period, when anesthesia is complete. This kind of pain normal will trouble the patient no more than five days and should have a good yield correction traditional analgesics.
- Time to put the implant tooth? Surgical phase of procedure the implant will vary on average from an hour to 1 hour 30 minutes. This time the dentist will be enough in order to implant the artificial root in the prepared bed.
- Do implant immediately after tooth extraction? Immediately after tooth extraction you can put the implant through the technique of simultaneous implantation. However, it is necessary to undergo a qualitative preliminary survey.
Contraindications to the installation of the teeth implants
Any surgery, including dental implants, has its contraindications. However, not all of them are absolute, that is, some of them can be eliminated with the help of therapy, some are temporary and others.
Contraindications to the insertion of implants teeth absolute:
- Diseases of the blood and organs of hematopoiesis. To perform the operation will be impossible, for example, with bleeding disorders, as it threatens the development of bleeding.
- Acquired and congenital diseases of the CNS: depressive mood of the patient, psychosis, hypochondria, psychopathy. In the presence of such diseases, patients are often not able to perceive the information regarding the rules of behavior during treatment and after it.
- The presence of malignant cancer education. In this case, the prohibition stems from the fact that any surgery can have an impact on the growth and development of tumors.
- Diseases of the immune sphere. In this case, the prohibition stems from the fact that implantation as a surgical intervention will require enhanced immune function, which is impossible.
- Pathology of the connective tissue. After the implantation process of implantation will require enhanced formation and growth of connective tissue around it. This process the body will not be able to fully launch in the presence of diseases such as: systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, rheumatoid disorders, etc.
- Tuberculosis, gonorrhea, AIDS and other HIV-positive infection, and complications caused by them.
- Diseases of the oral mucosa: aphthous stomatitis, prone to relapse, pemphigus, lupus erythematosus, Sjogren’s and some others.
- Diabetes of the first type.
- Dehydration and hypertonicity of the muscles responsible for chewing.
- The increase in the size of the language.
Relative contraindications, which will be the creation of certain conditions to be reviewed are:
- The poor state of the oral cavity, for example, the presence of carious teeth.
- Poor hygiene of the oral cavity.
- Infectious and noninfectious gingivitis.
- Inflammation in the tissues surrounding the teeth (periodontitis marginal).
- Diseases of the temporomandibular joint.
- Violations of the structure of the alveolar bone or atrophy of bone tissue.
- Bad habits, particularly Smoking, alcohol and drug abuse.
- The period of carrying a child and breastfeeding.
In addition, individual series are contraindications General plan, including:
- General surgical provisions is grounds for refusal to execute the procedure surgery.
- Intolerance to painkillers.
- Some somatic disease, which can progress when carrying out the implantation, for example, heart disease, endocarditis, rheumatic disease, etc.
- Therapy with immunosuppressants, anticoagulants, cytostatics and other medicines.
- A period of less than one year after irradiation.
- Postoperative rehabilitation period.
- The patient’s age exceeding 55 years.
- Exacerbation of any chronic disease.
- The presence of a metal implant.