The increase in adrenal gland (hyperplasia) belongs to the category of very severe and serious diseases, as a paired organ associated with the production of a large number of various hormones (glucocorticoids, epinephrine, norepinephrine, aldosterone, androgens).
All of these hormones are responsible for normal functioning of the human body. The increase of the adrenal glands in newborns the most common, develops this form of pathology due to the effect of constant stress on the body of the expectant mother. The endocrine glands play a very important role in the human body.
At the slightest failure in their work, there are serious abnormalities that can lead to irreversible consequences and sometimes even death. If during the examination it was detected an increase of the adrenal glands, you should immediately contact your doctor to clarify the scheme of action and treatment.
The causes of the pathological process
There are many reasons that lead to the development of hyperplasia, but the most basic are:
- genetic predisposition;
- constant exposure to stress factors;
- congenital increasing glands.
The adrenal glands have two layers: the cortex and medulla. There are some diseases that can lead to their increase and appearance in different areas. Accordingly, the causes, namely pathology that lead to increased cell growth, can be divided into two groups, according to localization in different layers.
Stress is the most important damaging factor, as the adrenals are very susceptible to it
In the medulla develop diseases such as neuroblastoma, ganglioma, pheochromocytoma.
And in the cortical layer:
- cystic masses.
A genetic factor is characteristic of all pathological processes. Therefore, if the family were earlier cases of hyperplasia, it is better to be safe and timely examinations in the clinic. The adrenal glands are very sensitive to stressful situations, so you should refrain from emotional conflicts, nervous tension, and other negativity. If not to protect itself from stress factors, it will soon fail to work on doubles.
In a young child most often seen congenital abnormality. It is if his mother was in a state of constant stress during pregnancy, and at this time she experienced an increase in the endocrine glands. In addition to the congenital form of hyperplasia, can cause severe toxicity in the mother, reduced levels of the hormone hydrocortisone, and the use of certain medications.
General and specific symptoms
According to the data obtained from various experts, the increase of the adrenal glands is most often diagnosed in women than in men. The first symptoms of the pathological process can be noticed at an early age, namely the early formation of hair in intimate places, as well as an excessive amount of acne throughout the body.
Later these symptoms to discern more difficult. Some patients may be completely absent symptoms of the pathological process.
With the increase of the adrenal glands fails in all organs and systems of the body
The most common manifestations include:
- sharp jumps in blood pressure;
- neurological disorders, emotional instability, psychosis;
- the constant feeling of thirst and frequent trips to the bathroom at night;
- violation of thinking, memory lapses;
- the initial stage of diabetes;
- rapid weight gain, with subsequent formation of stretch marks;
- the weakness of the muscular activities;
- the fragility of the bone tissue;
- reducing the protective properties of the organism, with subsequent frequent colds;
- disorders in the gastrointestinal tract.
Among the specific symptoms are:
- a pilosis on man’s type in women;
- excessive production of androgens;
- the appearance of hairline at an early age, in the pubic region and armpits;
- the lack of menstrual bleeding;
- excessive growth that is inconsistent with their age;
- acne all over the body;
- hair loss in the temporal region;
- reproductive disorders.
The types of pathology
There are several types of hyperplasia, it all depends on what area of the adrenal gland, is involved in the enhancement process. The increase in adrenal gland may be nodular, diffuse, nodular, micronodular. More detail about each.
Nodular increase of the adrenal glands
With the variety of hyperplasia is observed the formation of single or multiple nodular formations. Expanded nodes lobed form up to 4 cm. This form of the pathological process observed in 40% of patients, which were found enlarged adrenal gland.
Nodular hyperplasia is the most common form of increased adrenal
Nodular hyperplasia can be formed from both the right and left adrenal gland and also be bilateral. Simply put, when conducting diagnostic procedures for the process of increasing will be observed by one gland or both. As soon as this diagnosis was made, it is necessary to urgently initiate therapeutic measures.
According to statistics, most often, the form of the pathological process occurs in older people and is classified as hereditary.
Among the symptoms of the disease there are:
- convulsive episodes, muscle weakness;
- caries, which is difficult to treat;
- frequent headaches;
- disorders from the urinary system;
- mental disorders;
- the rapid growth of hair;
- small tumors and rashes on the skin;
Diffuse enlargement of the adrenal glands
Diffuse form form of hyperplasia of the adrenal glands is unchanged, but they increased proportionally. Usually this type of pathological process is combined with nodular increase and can only detect it with the help of magnetic resonance imaging. Ultrasound diagnosis in diffuse increase is not granted, as it is uninformative.
To determine a pathological increase of the endocrine glands best used MRI
The clinical manifestations of the pathological process may not occur for a long time. For each patient selected a particular regimen of drugs that must be taken for life. Medicines belong to the group of substitutes for sex hormones. With continuous hormonal therapy, a woman is not difficult to get pregnant and give birth to a healthy baby.
The main features include:
- degenerative disorders;
- abnormal menstruation;
- violations of reproductive function;
- panic attacks;
- in men there is a reduction of the testes;
- soreness behind the sternum;
- muscle spasms;
- an overwhelming sense of thirst.
Nodular increase of the adrenal glands
Nodular hyperplasia has a second name – node focal. The characteristic features of this process is the fact that hepatocytes (the cell structure of the liver) start to increase in volume, and as a result, formed abnormalities and vascular changes. Among experts there is no consensus for what reasons, and what leads to the development of this pathological process.
But there is speculation that this is somehow connected with the disturbances in the vascular system or change begins with the incorrect use of hormonal medications. For the diagnosis of disease using magnetic resonance and computer tomography and ultrasonic methods. In addition, if you suspect nodular hyperplasia, it is imperative to make the fence material renal (biopsy).
The biopsy is assigned to patients with suspected nodular adrenal increase
Most often, focal nodular increase in endocrine glands occurs in young children and adolescents, in older children is rare. Early diagnosis and timely treatment increase the chances of a full recovery.
The clinical picture consists of the symptoms:
- muscle atrophy in the lower extremities;
- emotional instability, drowsiness;
- the skin on the face are painted in purple or marble shade;
- obesity in the chest, face, stomach and neck;
- a pilosis on man’s type.
- diabetes mellitus;
- heart rhythm disorders;
- pain in the bones.
Micronodular increase in adrenal
Micronodular increase the endocrine glands develops during prolonged influence on the paired organ of the hormone adrenocorticotropin. This, in turn, leads to the development of an adenoma of the adrenal gland. Unfortunately, very often doctors put misdiagnosis, and confuse this pathology with tumor formation.
The increase of endocrine glands in children
The increase of the adrenal glands in children was congenital, and it is associated with certain gene mutations. These kids disrupted cortisol production, he is in disadvantage, and as a consequence, the development of giperbolicheskogo process from both sides. This type of hyperplasia can be detected even in newborns, which allows you to start timely treatment and greatly improves the chances of a full recovery, with subsequent active lifestyle.
In babies you may notice these symptoms: the appearance of hair in the pubic area and armpits, the presence of pigmentation of the genital organs, the expression of masculine facial features in girls, acne on the face, the first menstruation for a long time does not start.
If a pregnant woman is under the influence of constant stress, then the child may develop congenital hyperplasia
The increase of adrenal gland belongs to the category of endocrine diseases to diagnose and diagnosis is necessary to consult an endocrinologist.
To determine adrenal pathology it is necessary to conduct a series of diagnostic procedures, the most needed include:
- radioimmunoassay analysis is required to determine the level of Cortina in the urine and blood;
- computer and magnetic resonance tomography;
- ultrasound examination;
- biochemical analysis of blood and urine;
- enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay;
- aspiration puncture;
- radionuclide scan.
Treatment of pathological process
Enhanced scheme of treatment for adrenal hyperplasia does not exist, it largely boils down to prolonged use of hormonal drugs. In accordance with the severity of the disease and its variety, the expert prepares a detailed treatment plan.
The most common group of medications to eliminate the signs of this disease as well as treatment, consider glucorticoid. Most often it is: Prednisolone, Dexamethasone, Hydrocortisone, Cortisone acetate, and others. The treatment regimen includes the use of two or three identical dosages of hormonal medications per day and the total dose after lunch or in the morning.
Young patients prescribed drugs for stimulation and proper formation of secondary sexual characteristics. Girls prescribe estrogens, and the boys need to take androgens.
In the presence of the running process and severe forms of pathology, and recommended surgical intervention. Help surgeons required for the procedure of correction of the genital organs in babies under 2 years. To achieve good results and quick recovery, the surgery is best implemented in the first year of a child’s life.
All hormonal drugs are prescribed strictly according to doctor’s prescription
If surgical intervention was performed in the adult patient, the recovery period should refrain from alcoholic beverages, drugs with hypnotic effect, go to a healthy lifestyle. Health is the main value of a person, so you need to give it special attention. At the slightest signs of sickness you should contact your doctor and not to forget that most of the abnormalities do not manifest themselves for quite a long time. This suggests that the required high attentiveness to your body.