17.05.2021

Types of cholecystitis, complications, its diagnostics

Upon reaching middle age is useful to know about the disease cholecystitis – what is it, what are its symptoms, prevention and treatment. According to medical statistics, the risk of developing cholecystitis are more prone to middle-aged women and older than men of the same age.

Cholecystitis is an inflammatory process, accompanied by irritation of the gallbladder. Classification of disease code in ICD-10.

Causes inflammation

Cause of inflammation cholecystitis is a disturbance of the bile flow from the gallbladder into the small intestine.

Bile plays an important role in the digestive process of a person. Excessive accumulation of bile in the gallbladder occurs due to issues with its output via the bile duct. All this is accompanied by sharp pain and risk of infection.

Women, especially middle-aged and older, are more prone to this disease than men.

This is caused by the following reasons:

  1. During pregnancy there is a continuous and long-term squeezing of the bladder, which laid the Foundation for a subsequent breach of the bile flow.
  2. Female hormones during pregnancy negatively affect the production of bile and the gall bladder.
  3. Diets that attract women often not only promote weight loss, but also provoke a disruption of the gallbladder.

There are certain causes of cholecystitis, which can trigger disorders of the bile flow:

  • infectious lesions of the liver or intestines;
  • diseases caused by parasites;
  • circulatory disorders of the gallbladder.

To determine how a doctor treats a certain disease – a gastroenterologist or surgeon first performed a comprehensive diagnosis of the patient.

The first signs of inflammation in the gallbladder serve sharp pain in lower ribs on the right side of the body.

When the process provokes a deterioration in the flow of bile into the intestine, it is accompanied by the following external features:

  • the skin acquires a bright yellow color;
  • significantly quickens the pulse.

The main cause of cholecystitis (international classification code for ICD-10) is the process of accumulation of stones in the gallbladder. First, there is acute form of inflammation, which then develops into a chronic. This changes the thickness of the walls of the gallbladder.

In chronic course of the disease these symptoms may not occur. Treatment appoint a doctor.

Types of cholecystitis, complications, its diagnostics

Gallbladder, bile produced by them, plays an important role in the digestion of food. Bile helps to stimulate the mucus that provides a protective function, activates enzymes, supports the work of the small intestine. Let us examine in more detail what cholecystitis.

The disease occurs for two main reasons:

  • violation of the bile flow;
  • infringement of a motility of the gallbladder.

Depending on the causes of the disease is divided into two groups:

  1. Calculous – the presence of stones, a stretching of the walls of the gallbladder.
  2. Acalculous – a violation of blood supply of the walls of the gallbladder.

The size and structure of stones in the gallbladder can be various. The main composition of stones is lime and cholesterol. The stones can be of different sizes. They can be formed in the bladder, and bile ducts.

The nature of the process is chronic and acute cholecystitis.

The nature of the inflammatory process, the following types of cholecystitis:

  • purulent;
  • mixed;
  • gangrenous;
  • catarrhal.

Complications of cholecystitis in the acute form of the disease, as a rule, the following:

  • the inflammatory process in the pancreas;
  • the rupture of the gallbladder;
  • peritonitis;
  • jaundice.

For the initial diagnosis of the disease is used palpation of certain areas of the patient’s body, light strokes to provoke pain. Then examines the presence and nature of these pains.

The chronic form of the disease is characterized by the following symptoms:

  • nausea;
  • heaviness and bloating;
  • bitter taste in the mouth;
  • on palpation palpable enlarged liver;
  • increased body temperature up to 38 °C;
  • is no sharp pain.

Diagnosis of the disease is with the help of ultrasound examination of the gallbladder and liver. Laboratory diagnosis includes the analysis of blood, urine, duodenal contents. Also actively use probing and x-ray examination of the gallbladder.

Disease in childhood

Cholecystitis in children has the same types as in adults. Older children fall sick more than the kids. At a young age this disease is more common in boys, in older girls. Acute cholecystitis in children with timely treatment completely cured. If the healing process to run, the acute form may become chronic. Treatment of cholecystitis in children trying to hold in a home. Only in severe cases, hospitalization.

Treatment is comprehensive and consists of the following:

  1. Strict adherence.
  2. Food strictly according to the recommendations of dietitian.
  3. The course of medical treatment.
  4. Herbal medicine.

Reduce the motor activity of the child in observance of bed rest is prescribed only at a high temperature. To limit for a longer period of activity of the child is not necessary, as this can cause stagnant processes in the movement of bile. From the diet of the child is necessary to completely eliminate fat, smoked, spicy, pickled, salty foods, chocolate, citrus and carbonated drinks. The meals include low-fat soups, vegetables, fruits, salads, vegetable oils, cereals, poultry and fish, steamed. Proper diet prevent the re-emergence of the disease. Together with diet actively use infusions of medicinal herbs: calendula, rose hips, corn silk, chamomile.

Parents need to exercise control over the observance of the child’s diet, physical exercises.

Treatment and prevention

At the onset of seizures for pain relief need to do the following:

  • call the doctor;
  • to lie in a horizontal position;
  • apply cold to the abdomen;
  • to reduce nausea drink the refreshing liquid.

At the initial stage of the disease involved the active participation of a nutritionist who determines recommendations for adjusting food intake, recommends what products to eliminate from the diet. The treatment of the disease in the acute and chronic stages carried out in a hospital.

Do apply the following treatment methods:

  1. The purpose of the course of antibiotics.
  2. Antispasmodics – ensuring the passage of bile.
  3. Cholagogue – stimulates production of bile.
  4. Surgical methods.

Diet use porridge, steam cutlets, jelly, white bread, plant-based diet without of roughage. Food should be divided into small portions. Make food often needed up to 6 times a day.

The night is impossible. It is forbidden to eat fatty, salty foods, canned foods, soft drinks, dairy products. As actively used drinking water of high salinity. Use them at room temperature before eating. Useful different teas, including chamomile, motherwort, Valerian. To stimulate the tone of the gall bladder drink a tea containing St. John’s wort, corn silk, Schizandra. Active benefit is unheated and short pine baths. Prevention of cholecystitis is to ensure a balanced diet.

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