Women suffer more often than men. The prevalence of such a diagnosis as a tumor of the gall bladder, the highest in the developed countries, for example, in America. Although in General, cancer of this organ is in sixth place among cancers of the gastrointestinal tract.
Among the diseases of the gall bladder cancer occurs less often. In this pathology tumor cells affects the mucous, serous and muscular tissues of the bile ducts and bladder, located under the liver.
Starts the malignant process in the inner (serous) layer of the bladder. After that it grows and captures the whole body. To diagnose cancer in early stages is difficult, as is often the gallbladder liver closed during the examination using ultrasound.
The most dangerous disease – an asymptomatic variant. Its consequence will be too later discovery of horrible diseases in the gall bladder.
According to medical study, gallstone disease causes the development of tumors in 90% of cases. Chronic inflammation begins development of abnormal cells. The risk group includes women, especially those older than 50-55 years.
Heredity is also important. Therefore, people who met oncologic disease, you should be more attentive to their health and well-being.
Symptoms and diagnosis of tumors
Malignancy in early stages, produce symptoms similar to the clinical picture of cholecystitis and cholelithiasis. However, in this case the pain will not stop, will grow into persistent and helped informed the drugs will not give the desired effect.
The function of the stomach and intestine is also disturbed. The patient will complain of poor appetite, and abdominal pain, especially in the right hypochondrium. Sometimes much temperature rises. This phenomenon is called cancer fever.
If a tumor is the body is greatly increased. Sometimes he even felt during palpation of the right hypochondrium. Along with this, there may be enlargement of the liver, as the tumour presses on it.
Near the liver are the veins, the compression of which can cause edema of the lower extremities and ascites. It is considered to be an indirect symptom of this type of cancer.
In the later stages, symptoms of gallbladder cancer are:
- constant fatigue;
- quick weight loss;
- yellowness of the mucous membranes and the skin;
- loss of appetite.
May also see jaundice, which shows the great size of the tumor of the gallbladder. With all these symptoms a visit to the doctor should not be postponed. Specialist should immediately run a diagnostic.
The main diagnostic method in this case laparoscopy. Determine the presence of metastases, size of tumor. Carry out material sampling for cytological studies.
In addition, a ultrasound examination of abdominal cavity organs, CT scan and blood test (for the presence of cancer-embryonic antigen). Contrast method transhepatic cholangiography allows to assess the overall condition of the bladder and of the bile ducts.
In addition, the doctor will assess the degree of proliferation and the malignant tumors, examined data research and cancer symptoms of the gallbladder.
Treatment and consequences of cancer
Timely diagnosis will greatly affect the prognosis of survival, as failure to treatment in most cases is not helping the patient. Diagnostic procedures help to differentiate cancer from such pathologies as a cyst, a gall bladder, a benign tumor (papilloma), adenomyomatosis gallbladder and other disorders.
The stage of development of the tumor of the gallbladder: zero, first, second, third and fourth. At the zero stage the abnormal cells start their growth in the serous layer, gradually expanding further.
The first stage is characterized by lesions of the inner layer of the bladder and connective tissue. Then the tumor begins to grow in the muscle layer.
In the second stage of the process involves covering the bladder visceral peritoneum. Affected pancreas, liver and intestines. After that, the tumor affects the nearest lymphatic vessels. Develops cancer of the gallbladder and biliary tract.
At the third stage of the cancer there is a loss of the main hepatic blood vessel. It was at this time changed cells are carried throughout the body. At last, the fourth stage in the process involved distant organs and vessels.
If the tumor had grown only within the gallbladder, doctors prescribe surgery – cholecystectomy (removal of). Removes the bladder, nearby blood vessels, tissue. It is the most effective method of treatment.
Radiation therapy helps reduce the tumor in size. Is complex, with surgery. Radiation therapy may be internal (through the catheter) and external.
Courses of General or local chemotherapy aims to prevent the emergence of metastases. Held in the cancer center. The drugs in chemotherapy spread throughout the body, and affecting patients and healthy organs.
The prognosis of tumors of the gallbladder are relatively favorable, if was struck by only one organ and the pathological process did not go beyond its walls. But in case of late detection of the disease the operation is not carried out and the consequences of the disease are often very sad.