Obstructive jaundice, or as it is called obstructive – this is a disease that is directly related to the termination of the normal flow of bile due to obstacles in the external (not liver) channels.
Reasons why the disease occurs, there may be a large number, but the most common statistics are gallstone disease and disruption of neoplastic processes of the hepatobiliary system, what causes them inflammation in the biliary tract. Along with this, in the epithelium of the skin accumulates excessive bilirubin, leading to yellowing of the skin (hence the name of the disease), the occurrence of itching (which is often the primary symptom).
If obstructive jaundice
Obstructive jaundice is a dangerous disease, as a mechanical impediment to the normal flow of bile leads to dysfunction of the liver, and the occurrence of malignant tumors (due to excessive toxins in the body). In the period of exacerbation manifested suprarenal and jaundice, followed by physical rupture of the biliary tract, getting their content in the blood stream. While the liver itself is inflamed, thyroid gland, faeces discoloured, urine color becomes more intense and gets an unpleasant odor.
In the blood increases the amount of bilirubin, cholesterol, which also provokes the appearance of plaques in the heart veins of the lower extremities. Is a kind of gradual poisoning of the body, to eliminate that medication is not possible. At the transition of the disease into the chronic stage, together with the rupture of the bile channels, the only possible treatment option is surgical intervention and removal of the damaged duct.
Cholestatic jaundice, when the blood increases the amount of “bad” cholesterol, particularly dangerous for patients with multiple problems in the cardiovascular system. This leads to blood clots, increasing the risk of their falling into the duct veins pulmonary artery. Their causes is a significant increase in the content in the body of viscous components and increasing the density of blood.
Parenchymal jaundice is more rare. It is also characterized by a disruption of the normal flow of bile, however, there is due to cysts in the region of the liver, which and is compressed channels, increasing their internal pressure. Here the treatment is prescribed individually according to the results of medical research.
First, the doctor identifies the cause of the cyst, then, most likely, appoints its surgical removal or the so-called “blockage”, in which the area where the tumor overlaps the access of blood. Then there is necrosis of damaged tissue and its subsequent resorption. The latter method is applied only in cases, when the disease develops acutely.
Symptoms of the disease
So, obstructive jaundice begins with a sharp pain in the right hypochondrium, itching of the skin that occurs in different places, with different frequency, without succumbing to any forecast. After a few days, or even weeks (depends on how disturbed the normal circulation of bile) skin acquires a yellowish tinge, sometimes pale. When it comes cholestatic jaundice, that is, in the blood dramatically increases the number of “harmful” cholesterol, appear aching pain in the region of the heart, the lower extremities, but it is fast enough.
If a person has obstructive jaundice, the symptoms are primarily associated with intoxication: the whites of the eyes are painted in a yellowish tint, nails have “tobacco” color. Symptoms with time only grows until, until stabiliziruemost normal operation of the bile channels of the liver.
Pain in the thyroid and liver appear after some time after the initial signs of the disease. If time does not apply to surgical treatment, then the consequences will be severe.
The treatment of the disease
The first thing the doctor prescribes to the patient the examination of the abdominal organs, in particular, ultrasound or x-ray. This will give accurate information for diagnosis of the disease. If there is obstructive jaundice, we performed an assessment of the overall condition of the body.
When the cause of the disease is the presence of stones in the bile ducts, then you can do without surgery. In this case, is assigned a specialized diet and taking medications that contribute to stimulate the flow of bile and dissolving the stone deposits. If obstructive jaundice has already moved into the chronic stage, and violation of the outflow is more than 40 percent, carried out emergency surgery to remove the mechanical obstacles.
Along with traditional therapy the patient is undergoing a course of elimination of consequences of action of toxins.
For this purpose:
- physical cleaning of blood;
- forced diuresis.
The first signs that without operation not to manage – this is an acute inflammation of the liver and thyroid gland, accompanied by pain in the hypochondrium and solar plexus. But the itching that occurs due to a sharp increase in the amount of bilirubin in the body can be eliminated with the help of holestiramina (taken in the dosage specified by the doctor).
In rare cases, a physical external drainage of the bile flow. This method is used for acute pain and a considerable inflammation of the liver tissue. But keep in mind that the drainage be sure because on the site of the injection needle is a small hole through which bile can portion to get into the blood stream to the liver, other organs. That is a kind of mechanical detoxification, aimed at the unloading of the liver and stabilize its activities.
In clinics with large quantities of modern equipment it replaces physical plasmapheresis, but, unfortunately, in the CIS a few clinics have these devices.