The liver is the main filter of the body, purifying the blood from harmful substances. Their excess causes toxic liver injury, which leads to a decrease in the quality of the filter and affects the entire body. Moreover, this disease affects not only humans but also dogs and other animals.
Prolonged exposure to toxins can lead to degeneration of tissues and cause cancer. Therefore, it is crucial to fight the disease.
Causes toxic effects on the liver
Penetration of toxins can occur when eating them in food, through the respiratory tract or the skin. Quite often, intoxication of the liver is called medications due to overdose or side effect of taking.
Most often, toxic poisoning provoke such groups of drugs:
- antimicrobial (sulfonamides) and anti-viral tools;
- antipyretic drugs;
- anticonvulsant medications.
Therefore, treatment need to spend strictly on doctor’s orders, maintaining the gaps between the medications that the liver could be cleansed of the previous dose. Also toxic damage of the liver caused due to excessive alcohol consumption. The disease is widespread among people who prefer strong alcoholic drinks. The degree of liver damage depends on how many of these people live.
Possible poisoning with poisons of vegetable origin. This can be a plant, mold or fungi. The use of these products leads to intoxication of the liver.
Some chemicals can accumulate in the human body and have a devastating effect.
Especially dangerous are the following compounds:
Toxic cirrhosis of the liver is often diagnosed in workers of chemical plants. At risk are the people who come into contact with them on the nature of their profession.
Possible liver damage in thyrotoxicosis (excess thyroid hormones). In this case, a significant acceleration of metabolism, and toxic effects of substances increases several times.
The main signs of the disease
Intoxication of the liver is possible without symptoms. The liver is somewhat enlarged in size, while remaining soft. At the height of the body is reduced, it becomes firm on palpation.
The patient may notice the following symptoms:
- lack of appetite;
- belching and a feeling of bitterness in the mouth;
- pain in region of liver (a sharp or aching pain);
- orange urine color or blood in it;
- yellow skin and mucous membranes;
- weakness, fatigue.
Sometimes the poisoning to the liver causes itching on the skin in any part of the body, as well as stiffness and soreness of joints.
Perhaps the rapid course of the disease in the first hours. For example, intoxication of the liver with some mushrooms first appear jaundice and disturbance of consciousness. And without timely assistance specialists with a high probability of death.
Symptoms can occur in conjunction or one at a time. It is important to know that the way of manifestation of the disease depends on the patient’s condition.
Methods of diagnosis of intoxication
Diagnosis begins with a detailed survey of the patient. Find out what drugs he used and what toxic substances are in contact. Next, the doctor conducts a visual examination and palpation to detect the main symptoms.
This is followed by a few lab studies:
- the General analysis of urine (signs of illness are a dark color and the presence of protein or bile);
- General analysis of blood;
- biochemical analysis of blood level of bilirubin (due to increased toxic liver damage);
- coagulation (analysis of the rolling speed of blood clots), during intoxication decreases clotting;
- tests for hepatitis C can damage the liver tissue.
You should conduct a study on hormone levels, since the development of jaundice and enlargement of the liver often occurs in thyrotoxicosis.
Then make a series of instrumental investigations. Most often used ultrasound. It shows the size of internal organs and the presence of seals, which subsequently have to be treated. To obtain clearer images using computed tomography. And in some cases resort to biopsy (take for analysis a small section of the liver tissue) for examination under a microscope diseased cells of the body.
To prescribe the most effective treatment is possible only after a thorough examination of the patient.
Classification of toxic shock
Depending on the form of existing substances emit specific or nonspecific toxicity to the liver. In the first case the influence is exerted directly on the liver cells are dying off. The dose of the toxin is irrelevant. Such intolerance occurs in a child from the parents.
The main effect is on blood vessels. The cells pechenitsina due to lack of supply. This type of intoxication are often accompanied by symptoms of gastritis and irritation of the gastrointestinal tract.
Depending on the severity of the patient there are three degrees of the disease.
It is necessary to prescribe treatment.
- 1 degree is characterized by increased levels of enzymes that destroy the poisons, 2-5 times from the norm.
- Stage 2 – enzyme levels in the blood increases 5-10 times.
- Grade 3 – there is a tenfold excess of liver enzymes in the blood.
The answer to the question, how many live patients with toxic damage of the liver, depends on stage of disease and the effectiveness of treatment. Because when there is significant liver damage, the formation of malignant tumors, which significantly reduces survival rate.
If liver damage caused by a single dose of the toxin, as a result there was a mass dying off of cells, and the disease lasts less than six months, then we are talking about acute toxic damage. Symptoms usually appear 4-5 days.
In that case, if the body constantly fall small doses of toxins, they can accumulate a long time, but the signs of the disease will make itself felt after months or years. An example of this is the liver alcohol that is chronic.
Hepatitis C also is a “time bomb”. Often these forms is complicated by the formation of scars and seals in the tissues of the liver and lead to cirrhosis.
If there are signs of intoxication, it is important to follow a diet that contributes to the output of bile and reduce inflammation. Food is recommended to eat small frequent meals. Thus it is necessary to abandon sharp, salty, fried and smoked products. It is recommended eating meals with low protein content.
To speed up treatment, increase the amount of fruits and vegetables and legumes. If to avoid contact with harmful substances can not, every day we need to drink milk.
When symptoms of intoxication, need to stop taking medications or reduce the impact of other types of substances. In some cases, use antidotes (drugs, binding poisons and terminates their effect on the body).
Inpatient treatment includes plasmapheresis, hemodialysis (cleaning the blood from harmful substances) or gastric lavage. The patient can be administered intravenously a large amount of fluid to stimulate urine output.
To replenish vitamins B and C as well as glucose they are administered intravenously. This increases resistance and accelerates the treatment.
It is recommended to take hepatoprotectors (medicines that improve the functioning of the liver) as a treatment for manifested illness and for prevention. Sometimes the doctor prescribes them together with other medication.
Thyrotoxicosis is assigned to the therapy with antithyroid drugs which reduce the production of hormones, thereby reducing the toxic effect on the body.
In particularly severe cases, when to treat the liver is not possible, it is recommended that a transplant. You can use part of the body of one of the relatives of the patient.