How to check the kidneys, prompt the urologist or nephrologist. While the diagnosis will help to avoid severe complications. The early treatment of any disease allows you to quickly achieve the desired results, to avoid unnecessary surgical intervention.
If a person had “bags” under the eyes, and the skin became gray and dry, there is malfunction of the urinary system. You should not delay a visit to a specialist for examination of kidneys and adrenal glands, as well as their functional activity.
Rare to find a person who regularly passes the full examination of the body. Most people delay visit to the doctor, swallow handfuls of pills and convince yourself that it will soon disappear pain, cramps, tingling. And only if aggravation of symptoms of the appointment. This tactic is extremely dangerous, especially when the sick kidneys.
Paired organs rid the blood of toxins, regulate blood pressure, participate in metabolism. Even a minor violation in their work will quickly affect the functioning of all vital systems.
Modern methods of diagnosis of the kidneys painless, do not cause the man any discomfort.
Be sure to go through the procedure of examination of this clinic of kidney damage:
- high blood pressure;
- frequent night urination;
- the decrease in amount of discharge of urine;
- pain in the abdomen and in the lumbar region;
- the increase in body temperature;
- burning and cramps when emptying of the bladder;
- change the color and smell of urine.
Examination of the kidneys should not be delayed when even one of the above symptoms improper operation of the urinary system. Experts recommend twice a year to conduct a thorough diagnosis of paired organs.
A full medical examination is important to go through the people with congenital or acquired abnormalities of the kidneys. If there is a genetic predisposition to kidney stones or glomerulonephritis, you should regularly examine a child from infancy.
The appearance of pulling pain in my side, you should check the kidneys
Diagnosis at home
To carry out a full inspection of the kidneys in home conditions is not possible.
But if you suspect a violation of their work should determine the localization of the pain to try to analyze my feelings:
- sharp, sharp cramps indicate rapidly developing inflammatory process in the structural elements of the kidney (the cups, pelvis, parenchyma, tubules);
- nagging, aching pain that appear when cold or eating spicy food, occur when a chronic indolent disease.
Also at home you can test urine for the presence of impurities. To do this in a transparent container you need to collect urine and attentively to consider it. Upon detection of fresh blood, dark blood clots, flakes, cheesy sludge must have an appointment for a consultation to the urologist.
To evaluate the kidneys will help the daily analysis of urine. Within 24 hours it is necessary to collect the urine in a calibrated container and then measure the resulting volume. If it does not exceed 1.5-1.8 l, the kidneys have lost the ability to filter the blood and excrete urine. A significant amount (over 2.5 l) means that the urine contains little uric acid and its compounds, toxins and products of protein breakdown. The kidneys cannot concentrate the urine, causing serious damage throughout the body.
You should examine the buds when you change the color of urine
What tests are most informative
After the external examination of the patient and listening to his complaints, the urologist will tell you where to start the survey and what tests are needed. Typically, the initial diagnosis tender results of laboratory and biochemical tests of urine and blood. In urine is determined by the content of the white and red blood cells, and epithelial tissues. Be sure to assesses the transparency, color and specific gravity of urine.
The concentration of the cylinders, proteins and glucose is a determinant of the presence of infectious foci in the kidneys.
Informative method of investigation of paired bodies is the daily amount of urine. You need to pass a lab urine collected during the day, excluding the first emptying of the bladder. In this way it is possible not only to establish the presence of inflammatory focus, but also the place of its localization in one of the organs of the urinary system.
In order to determine the kind of pathogen, the technicians carry out the sowing of the biological sample in the culture medium. This method revealed the sensitivity of microorganisms to antibacterial preparations that will be used in the treatment.
Before blood analysis, the doctor recommends that the patient refrain from physical activity, Smoking and alcohol for 2-3 days.
To check a kidney, the person taking the blood the following ways:
- from the finger to establish or refute the inflammatory process and the extent of its spread;
- from the vein to determine the concentration of protein and urea.
For reliable results, tests must not eat for 12 hours before the procedure. If you suspect endocrine etiology of the decrease in the functional activity of the kidneys can’t drink any liquid and even clean teeth. People with systemic diseases must pass laboratory tests every 6 months.
Modern methods of diagnosis
After studying and evaluating the obtained results of laboratory tests, it is necessary to examine the buds to determine the extent of damage. Methods of diagnosing chosen by the doctor depending on the patient’s age and alleged illness. Research methods that use radiation, it is strictly forbidden to pregnant women.
For examination of the kidneys used in the method of computer tomography
Such informative inspection procedures as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are not only assigned to young children and people with mental disorders. While checking kidneys, it is necessary to maintain complete immobility for hours, that is unable to these categories of patients.
Usually such research is done at different levels of complexity:
- ultrasound. The procedure allows to assess the condition of the cups, pelvis and tubules, to differentiate benign and malignant tumors, determine the localization of the infectious focus. The study allows to detect stones in the kidneys or bladder, to assume their chemical composition. This is the only diagnostic method that has no contraindications and does not require special training;
- urography. Method is indispensable for the installation the degree of damage of renal vessels, assessment of blood supply in the organs of the urinary system. Before the procedure, patients are injected contrast agent. After its distribution through the veins, arteries and capillaries on the computer screen are rendered in the smallest vessels. Urography is contraindicated in people who have individual sensitivity to contrast agent;
- x-ray examination. During the procedure the human body receives a radiation dose that is considered safe. Pictures are not always informative, since the images are obtained in only one or two projections;
- scintigraphy. The static method allows to determine the form of the kidneys, their location relative to each other, to assess the degree of damage to the pelvis and cups. During the dynamic scintigraphy of patients injected contrast agent. On the screen of the monitor technician monitors the movement of blood through the vessels of small pelvis in real time, verifies the integrity of veins, arteries and capillaries;
- magnetic resonance imaging. The procedure is contraindicated in patients with pacemakers, metal dental implants, and even tattoos. There are also some restrictions for pregnant and breastfeeding women. Modern methods of diagnostics allows to obtain three-dimensional images of the kidneys, to evaluate the work of a solitary kidney after removal of the other. After the end of the study, the patient receives a transcript of results within 15-20 minutes;
- CT. This method of diagnosis is performed to study possible damage to the kidney structural elements, evaluation of the effectiveness of the prescribed treatment, determine the area of surgical intervention. With CT you can evaluate the condition of the kidneys before making a decision about removing the second one.
During the examination of the kidney the urologist always performs examination of the bladder by means of cystoscopy. For this purpose in the hollow body thin catheter with an integrated camera, and the results of the diagnostics are visualized on the computer screen.
Cystoscopy refers to the auxiliary methods of detection of reduction of the functional activity of the kidneys. If found urine blood or pus, it is necessary to determine the localization of the inflammatory focus.
Ultrasound is an effective method of checking kidney
Many modern diagnostic methods are contraindicated or not informative for some patients (pregnant women, people with dentures containing metal). The endoscopic technique examined the urethra and bladder. Installing a built-in camera so that the field of view was the opening of the ureter, you can find out if he’s bleeding kidney.
After all the laboratory and instrumental investigations it is sometimes necessary to biopsy.
This morphological diagnostic method used to differentiate malignant and benign tumors of the kidneys, liver, lungs. Using a special endoscopic tool osipyants a small piece of a biological sample for further laboratory analysis.
For those people who care about their health, not afraid of unexpected diagnoses. They just pass all the tests at once to make an appointment to see a doctor if deterioration of General condition or the appearance of pathological signs of inflammation. Diagnosis of kidney disease at an early stage can prevent long treatment in the hospital.