The size of the kidneys and adrenal glands is one of the important indicators of normal development of organs. Each person has individual anatomical characteristics that are expressed in growth rates, body mass, type of physique, age.
Based on these indicators, developed standards in deciphering ultrasound of the kidneys and adrenal glands, which help to assess the pathology or normal condition of the body.
What are the kidneys and adrenal glands
The kidneys are paired organs, which provides a cleansing of the body. During the day they are hundreds of times passed through the blood, cleansing it of toxins. The human body normally has 2 kidneys located in the abdominal cavity at the level of the waist. They resemble the shape of beans, weight of each about 150-200 g. it is Noted asymmetry of the size of kidneys: left – larger than right, as growth of the past prevents the liver.
Sometimes a child is born with only one kidney, or the number doubles, that does not affect the normal functions. Usually, the patient accidentally becomes aware of the deviation in the structure of the urinary system in the study for any condition with the use of ultrasound.
There is also an asymmetry in the appearance of the adrenal glands, which are located above the upper ends of the kidneys. Right adrenal gland is triangular in shape with rounded corners, the left – resembles a Crescent moon. The adrenal gland is covered by a fibrous capsule, which adjoins the cortical substance, which includes 3 zones: glomerular, beam and mesh.
In the structure of the human kidney to identify the following structural elements:
- Connective tissue capsule.
- Serous membrane that covers each organ.
- Parenchyma with epithelial tubules and nephrons, the amount of which reaches 1 million.
- Pelvis – a cavity having the shape of a funnel passing into the ureter.
Urine formed in the nephron, opens into the bladder.
Estimating the size of a kidney
Female buds are smaller than the male because of a much smaller body mass of the fairer half. Great importance to determine the size of the kidney is patient’s age: up to 25 years they increased, then their growth pauses until 50 years, after which a marked decrease in the body.
The size of the kidney of an adult is directly proportional to the mass of the body
To compare the size of kidneys was normal with the patient records is possible with the ultrasound, which allows to determine the size of the body to identify diseases associated with the increase in the size of kidneys.
Normal indicators of a healthy kidney in adults is:
- Thickness – 40-50 mm
- A width of 50-60 mm,
- Length – 100-120 mm
The normal average thickness of the parenchyma of an adult – 23 mm. With aging of the organism, the parenchyma is reduced to a maximum of 2 times. Within a daily time, your kidneys filter the blood more than 50 times. When the human body grows, the circulatory system and the amount of blood also increases. This causes increase in size of the kidneys in the compliance rate for adults.
Abnormalities in renal size
The disparity between the magnitude of renal size of normal, it is urgent to be examined, as is likely, this indicates the presence of pathology.
The size of the kidney can exceed the rate in the absence of other when the first is necessary to perform a double function.
Increase the size of the kidney can indicate the serious pathologies of various kinds, especially such as hydronephrosis. Hydronephrosis in the renal pelvis there is a concentration of the formed urine, which moves through the ureter into the bladder. Hydronephrosis is reflected by the stagnation of urine, which leads to an increase of the pelvis, and then the main filter of the body.
Indicators of kidney size in children
The process of development of a child in each case are different, and establish normal renal size is not easy. To recognize disease processes set standards based on average indicators of the size of the kidneys in children.
The kidneys of newborn babies under 2 months are measured 49 mm, pelvis newborn – 6 mm and up to a three-year age increases by only 1 mm. year-old kid’s body is 62 mm. In the period of development of the human organism to 19 years kidney the increase occurs every 5 years, on average, 13 mm.
Correlating the real figures and parameters of the norm, it is possible to identify serious pathology of the urinary system of the child.
|Newborn||49 mm||22 mm||18 mm|
|5 months.||55 mm||31 mm||19 mm|
|1 year||62 mm||37 mm||26 mm|
|5 years||79 mm||43 mm||28 mm|
|11 years||98 mm||515 mm||33 mm|
|15 years||107 mm||53 mm||35 mm|
About the adrenal glands
The adrenal gland has an uneven surface. In the center of the body is the medulla of large cells, which chromium salts give a yellowish-brown color: epinephrine, produce adrenaline, and norepinephrine producing norepinephrine. With the help of adrenaline splits glycogen, the amount of which becomes smaller in the muscles and liver.
The hormone increases the percentage of carbohydrate in the blood, thus there is a strengthening and increased work of the heart muscle. Adrenaline makes the lumen of the vessels is less narrow, it increases the HELL. Norepinephrine the body acts in a similar way, but sometimes the hormones cause the opposite effect: under the effect of noradrenaline is a slowdown in the heart rate.
The parameters of the adrenal gland
The adult adrenal gland weighs at least 12 grams, length is 40-60 mm, width 30 mm, thickness 4-7 mm. some people Have found innate the presence of only one adrenal gland. The adrenal gland of the newborn weighs a maximum of 7 g, and is almost twice more than body weight year-old child.
The reason is that the body weight diminished as a result of thinning of the cortical substances in the process of restructuring. By age five the child’s weight adrenal is returned to the initial figure, and then gradually increases. Cortical substance of the organ is formed by age 12.
The 20-year milestone, the weight of the adrenal gland becomes more is achieved a maximum dimension of indicators – up to 13 In the future, neither the size nor the weight of the adrenal tissue is not affected. The female adrenal glands are marked a bit large in size compared to the male. During pregnancy the adrenal gland is increased by 2 g.
In the eighth decade of years there has been a decline in the mass and dimensions of the organ.
The adrenal glands are located asymmetrically: the left slightly behind right in size and weight
Determining the size of the kidneys and adrenal glands on ultrasound
Ultrasound examination provides an opportunity to assess the size and structure of the image contours, the presence of tumors.
Ultrasound is carried out, if there are symptoms pointing to different pathology of the adrenal glands:
- Darken the skin.
- The feeling of causeless fatigue.
- Quick weight gain.
- The formation of stretch marks on the skin.
- Strong body hair in women, failure of the menstrual cycle.
- Sexual impotence in men.
When the adrenal glands are normal, ultrasound shows small triangles. Sometimes the size may vary, in half of the cases of the left adrenal gland are seen in 10% of studies not seen right. The size of the adrenal gland should be below 2.5 cm. If you exceed this limit there is a suspicion of the presence of the disease, in such cases, the additional studies.
The slight deviation of parameters from accepted norms up to 10 mm. Exceeding 1 cm in any dimension you should call the doctor the need to clarify the reasons for the changes in the urinary system.
Chronic inflammation of the kidney size is reduced. Acute inflammation, cancerous tumors, increase the body. Changing the size of the body marked by unilateral or bilateral nephroptosis.
The disease has 3 degrees, which differ in the level of the lower edge of the kidney:
- 1 St. – the body is lowered to a height of one and a half vertebrae lower back.
- 2 art – 2 and more vertebrae.
- 3. – for 3 and more vertebrae.
The parenchyma is able to change the thickness in the disease processes. Pyelonephritis, nephropathy, hypertension leads to reduction in the thickness of parenchyma and formation of the seal. Ultrasound gives the ability to note changes in the echogenicity of the organ.
ULTRASONIC examination allows to determine not only the size, but also their localization, and the presence of pathological formations
Renal structures have a different density, which may differ from the norm, which indicates disease. Echogenicity changes in the presence of cystic growths. If the kidney or adrenal gland is affected with malignant tumor, the size and shape of the body would be uncharacteristic ecoprotect.
Ultrasonic examination of the organs – safe procedure. To the fetus it is also not threatening, so use during pregnancy. The accuracy of ultrasound diagnosis is high. The patient are stones larger than 2 mm, identified with almost 100% accuracy.
It is possible to determine if you can get stones without surgery. The results of ultrasound examination of kidneys and adrenal glands decrypted by the attending specialist for administration of appropriate therapy should take into account the characteristics of the disease specific patient.