It is necessary to ensure the early cessation of contact with the problematic cosmetic, its removal from the surface of the skin and mucous membranes. In the acute stage of allergy to cosmetics, local preparations are used that reduce the manifestations of the disease (cooling compresses and tanning broths, Burov’s liquid).
Glucocorticosteroid hormones (topically, orally and parenterally) and antihistamines are used.
Cosmetic allergy is an increased sensitivity of the body to certain cosmetic products and components contained in it with the development of a delayed-type allergic reaction (with urticaria and allergic contact inflammation of the skin) or non-immunological reactions (with simple dermatitis). According to statistics, every adult person uses at least 5-7 cosmetics every day, while at least one case of intolerance is observed during the life of every tenth inhabitant of our planet. The most common allergic reactions occur in women aged 20-30 years, especially when they have dry and damaged skin. In the US, between 50 and 150 thousand cases of intolerance to cosmetic preparations are detected annually.
Causes of Cosmetic Allergy
Allergy to cosmetics can cause any means applied to the skin, lips, hair and nails to cleanse, protect, improve the appearance and give a pleasant smell. This applies to perfumes, deodorants, shaving products, lipsticks, creams, shampoos, nail polishes, dyes, bath products, toothpastes and sunscreens.
In the production of cosmetics use more than 70 thousand different organic and inorganic components, almost all of them can become the cause of allergic reactions, chemical irritation of the skin and mucous membranes.
Among the potentially hazardous substances are natural and synthetic oils and fats (fish oil, lanolin, castor oil, gelatin), emulsifiers (lauryl, triethanolamine), preservatives (propylene glycol and formaldehyde), fragrances, vegetable extracts and extracts, enzymes, etc.
Pathological process occurs when direct contact of the antigen with the skin (applying cream, lipstick, paint), remotely (sprays, deodorants), airborne droplets (during aromatherapy, inhalation of vapors from the perfumery of another person), when exposed to the skin ultraviolet radiation and activation under his influence allergens, previously penetrated into the body.
Pathogenesis of cosmetics allergies
The mechanism of development of the pathological process in case of allergy to cosmetics is caused by delayed-type hypersensitivity that occurs when the skin has a full-fledged allergen or hapten, which becomes a full-fledged antigen after binding to tissue proteins.
During the initial contact with the problematic substance, lymphocyte sensitization occurs, and again, T-cells activate macrophages, develop allergic inflammation with predominant cell infiltration and minor vascular changes.
The maximum severity of the delayed type of reaction is noted after 12-20 hours and is manifested by signs of skin lesions (mononuclear infiltration, swelling of the epidermis, the formation of bubbles). The easiest way is to develop hypersensitivity with a hereditary predisposition to allergic manifestations, excessive sweating, thinning of the horny layer of the skin and increased sensitivity of the skin to the effects of individual components of cosmetics.
Symptoms of a Cosmetic Allergy
Clinical symptoms are characterized by the development of skin manifestations in the form of dermatitis, urticaria and photosensitization. Significantly less (with inhalation of vapors and aerosols of perfumery products) there are signs of allergic rhinosinusopathy and bronchial asthma.
The defeat of the skin without an immunological reaction often occurs as a result of prolonged exposure to a problem remedy and is manifested first by dry skin, then by the appearance of maceration, itchy cracks and vesicles. In addition, persistent erythema, peeling and hyperkeratosis can be detected in localized areas of the skin. In the presence of alkaline or acidic properties of the drug, the formation of large bubbles, accompanied by burning and pain.
Allergic inflammation of the skin has a similar clinical picture and in 80% of cases is localized on the face and neck. Less often nail plates of the hands are involved in the process. With allergies, there is a more pronounced redness and swelling of the skin, more often found multiple vesicles. The affected area can capture areas that have not been in direct contact with the antigen.
Allergic inflammation of the face is most often localized in the upper and lower eyelids due to the thinness of the skin and its increased sensitivity in these areas, as well as regular trauma during contact with contaminated fingers and chemicals in the air. Damage to the eyelid skin is manifested by redness, desquamation, swelling and itching. Often, the inflammatory process in the face occurs due to skin irritation when in contact with artificial nails or aggressive substances contained in nail polish. At the same time limited areas of damage in the eyelids, the corners of the eyes, behind the ears are determined.
Symptoms of hypersensitivity in the red border of the lips are observed when using lipstick and manifest symptoms of cheilitis. Damage to the perioral area and oral cavity may occur when using toothpaste. Less commonly, signs of an allergy to cosmetics (shampoos, hair styling products) are found in the scalp in the form of redness, peeling, swelling of the skin and itching. The development of cosmetic photosensitivity with intense ultraviolet irradiation leads to symptoms of dermatitis, urticaria, and erythema edema.
Diagnose Allergy On Cosmetics
Diagnosis includes a thorough collection of information about past diseases and used cosmetics, conducting a clinical examination by an allergist-immunologist, dermatologist, dentist and other specialists, analyzing the results of research used in clinical allergology.
The use of application tests is the basis for identifying allergies to cosmetics. Samples are carried out in the interictal period, the problem remedy is applied to the skin of the back or forearm for two days, after which the result of the study is re-evaluated after 30 minutes, and then 3, 4 and 5 days after the drug is removed. Laboratory research methods (retardation of migration, rosette formation, etc.) are less specific.
Differential diagnosis is carried out with simple contact dermatitis, neurodermatitis, other non-allergic and allergic pathological conditions.
Forecast and prevention of cosmetics allergy
The course of allergy to cosmetics is prognostically favorable. After the cessation of the use of cosmetics, which caused the allergic reactions, the phenomena of hypersensitivity disappear. In the case of cross-allergy, it may be necessary to abandon the use of any cosmetic products. It is dangerous to develop angioedema or anaphylactic shock, but such reactions are rare.
Prevention consists in the professional selection of high-quality cosmetics and perfumes, the use of hypoallergenic products for daily skin care. When buying a new unknown cosmetics, it is necessary to examine the list of ingredients, first conduct an application test on a limited area of skin.