What is urinary system
The formation of urine occurs in kidneys. Blood is filtered through the walls of the blood vessels, giving the harmful and simply unnecessary elements. Then, the urine enters the ureters, and it drains into the bladder.
Latest periodically collects and displays the products of metabolism – urine.
If you disassemble the wall “cumulative authority”, we can see that it consists of several layers:
- The upper (protective).
- Medium – consists of smooth muscle.
- Internal – submitted to the mucous epithelium.
Slimy ball forms on the wall of the folds, which gradually straighten when the bladder receives urine. But the folds are not present throughout the entire body, they are not at the bottom. Due to this, there is formed a smooth vesical triangle.
The detrusor of the bladder is the middle layer of its wall, it consists of 3 balls of smooth muscles. Exterior and interior are formed of longitudinal fibers, and the average of the circular. This provides the possibility of various contractions of the walls of the body.
How is the excretion of urine
Excretion of urine from the bladder is regulated by two different divisions of the nervous system – sympathetic and parasympathetic. When in the middle has a sufficient amount of urine and the walls begin to stretch, raised intravesical pressure and straightened the folds in the mucosa. As a consequence, excitatory receptors, which send a signal to the brain and form the need for emptying the bladder.
Anatomical features of the urinary system
Once in the Central nervous system receives the signal from the nerve fibers, a person can temporarily hold urine in the bladder. But this happens only in the case when the detrusor absolutely healthy and its regulation are not violated.
When the brain receives permission to pee, the muscles of the body and of the sphincters of the urethra relax. There is an act of urination.
When urine leaves the bladder and enters the urethra, the detrusor goes into a stage of relaxation. The process goes in a circle. To began to receive the first signals of fullness of the bladder, the detrusor should stretch at least 100-150 ml of urine.
The accumulation of urine in the toilet I want stronger and stronger, and when its volume exceeds 300 ml, to hold back almost impossible.
Why is there dysfunction of the detrusor
The causes that can provoke pathologies, divided into two large groups:
- Neurogenic – arise from disturbances of innervation and diseases of the nervous system (Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, mechanical damage to the spinal cord or brain).
- Without affecting the innervation is much less likely to develop neurogenic and mostly in old age (atony of the bladder wall, pathology of blood circulation, tumor processes of the body or nearby).
How to determine the cause
First, the doctor needs details to collect the anamnesis of the disease, to listen to complaints. It is important to know whether the patient was last time out in the cold, did not feel strong stress or frightened. You also need to find out about any previously defined diseases, especially urogenital and nervous system.
After talking with the doctor patients receives referrals for testing. To start conduct a General study of blood and urine tests as well as ultrasound of the internal organs. These tests help to rule out pathology of the bladder or kidneys of an inflammatory nature, nephrolithiasis, and learn about possible anatomical peculiarities of organs.
To determine the presence of pathological conditions will help a qualified technician
If after the above tests the diagnosis is still questionable, resort to more complex methods of examination:
- Cystometry – performed using catheterization of the bladder. Through a special tube body filled with liquid or gas, most often saline. Determine what is the maximum volume capable of holding the bladder and the pressure in the body under different occupancy.
- Uroflowmetry–a completely safe, non-invasive method of research. The patient just need to urinate in a special container. Allows you to determine how fast and what volume of liquid was separated.
- Profilometry is a procedure is prescribed in order to determine the pressure in the urethra and to investigate the functions of the sphincter. The system of tubes is introduced into the urethra, and then gradually get it. During this special device holds the pressure of the muscles of the urethra.
Pathology of the detrusor
Unfortunately, our body eventually wears out, the bladder is no exception.
Violation of its functions can be of two types:
- Hyporeflectivity – in this case to excite the receptors in the bladder, need a large amount of urine. During urination, muscles is reduced enough. As a result, the liquid flows weak pressure, and the patients complain of a feeling of incomplete emptying.
- Hyperreflection in this case, the excitability of the organ is greatly increased. For the occurrence of the pulse, which goes to the brain, a fairly small amount of urine. Patients with this problem will speak about very frequent urination, but in small portions. In severe cases, can stand literally a couple of drops in one act.
Sometimes it so happens that the detrusor is in excellent condition, but the man can’t urinate. Most often it is associated with disorders in the nervous system – the formation of irregular pulse, the inability of the brain to receive information. Also, the cause may be spasm of the sphincter, which closes the lumen of the urethra and allows urine to come out.
If the bubble accumulates too much urine, the detrusor will contract independently and happens involuntary urination.
State of hyperactivity leads to urinary incontinence
Treatment of diseases
Due to the fact that the causes of the dysfunction voiding a huge amount, it is not necessary to independently put a diagnosis. The best option is to consult a doctor who will examine and send for further examination. Knowing the trigger factors, the specialist will be able to prescribe correct and adequate treatment.
Neurogenic pathologies in the first place to affect the Central nervous system and nerve fibers. Depending on symptoms, patients are prescribed a sedative or a stimulant medication.
When excessive excitation, the choice falls on:
- to drugs that cause relaxation of the detrusor – Cibotin, Triptan ;
- antispasmodic – Drotaverine, Papaverine, no-Spa;
- physiotherapeutic methods of treatment.
In the case of hyporeflectivity dysfunction, it is necessary to prescribe drugs that decrease effects of acetylcholine (Neostigmine).
Knowing what the bladder detrusor and a little understanding in his features, the man never misses a pathology. Most importantly, we must be attentive to yourself and try to take timely preventive examinations in clinics.