Structure and function of the human spine

A very complex device is the human spine. Thanks to him people can move standing on his feet, he also forms the normal functioning of internal organs, attached to it the bones of all limbs.

The spine

The spine is the core of the human body. The number of vertebrae is 32 to 34 pieces. They are connected by ligaments, joints and cartilage.

There are several divisions of the spine:

  • cervical (7 vertebrae);
  • thoracic (12);
  • lumbar (5);
  • sacral (5);
  • coccygeal part (3-5).


This division includes the cervical vertebrae, of which there are 7 pieces. This is the mobile division from all parts of the spine.

He is very agile, giving the ability to tilt the head in different directions and make turns. The cervical vertebrae have processes, where a lot blood vessel, through which the brain comes blood.


Structure of the thoracic spine consists of 12 vertebrae. There are transverse processes, through which are formed the ribs.

It turns out the rib cage, which is created with a single frame. This Department is not as mobile as the cervical vertebrae. In addition, the discs between the vertebrae have a small height.


The largest vertebrae are observed in the lumbar, quantity is 5 pieces. In some cases it is 6 vertebrae.

This unit has a smooth curve, it is called in medicine the physiological lordosis. He has a heavy load as links sedentary departments, namely the thoracic and sacral.

Especially large load is placed on the lumbar spine when a person lifts weights. Those who often carry this load, subsequently wear out the discs between the vertebrae.

Sometimes I can break the walls of the annulus, and the fact that the internal pressure of the disc exceeds the norm very often. After which there is a hernia.

The sacral region

This Department is a triangular shape fused vertebrae. Their quantity is 5 pieces. He formed over 25 years after the birth. From this division come the nerve roots. They lead to:

  • rectum;
  • feet;
  • bladder;
  • crotch.
Coccygeal division

The lower part, which has 3 or 5 vertebrae. They are also fused together. By the way, in order to make it easier for a woman to give birth, she they are mobile between them.

If you look at the spine in profile, you can see 4 of the bend:

  • bump to the forward – observed in the lumbar and cervical spine (lordosis);
  • bending toward the rear – that is observed in the sacral and thoracic spine (kyphosis).

Thus, a S-shaped form. Thanks to her, for every vertebra, the person will have less load.

Each vertebra of man is very important for the whole body as many muscles attached to it, and also it protects the spinal cord.

From the brain are transmitted impulses that pass to the internal organs through the spinal cord.

Therefore, if you reduce the quantity, you can get some of the disease and difficulty in movements. The norm is 32-33 vertebrae. Numbering of the vertebrae occurs from the top down.

The structure of the vertebra

The spine is a device that consists of a vertebrae. Like many bones, the vertebrae consists of human bone tissue. Also it consists of spongy bone substance.

Because his vertebrae have good strength, so the person can walk and also get different kind of load. Inside the vertebra there is a red bone brain, through which are transmitted impulses from the brain, and the blood.

After a while old tissue is destroyed to the bones of the spine, i.e. there is a constant renewal. There is a new fabric.

But this renewal takes place due to the different loads or stress on the vertebrae to stimulate the process. The more a person gets such an impact on the spine, the quicker the emergence of a new fabric that is more tightly previous.

There are several elements that go into the structure of the vertebra:

  • arc;
  • body;
  • processes.

Thanks to the body and arcs, it turns out a vertebral foramen. Arc attached to the rear body with two legs. And using the holes formed by the canal which protects the spinal cord.

On the arc there are several processes through which the spine is functioning normally. There are such processes:

  • spinous (back arc);
  • cross (there are on all sides of the arc);
  • articular (located on the top and bottom 2 of the Appendix).

Also have terminarea hole, through which enter the artery, and the nerve roots. Each vertebra of man is a complex device.

Intervertebral disc

Intervertebral disc located between the vertebrae is a complex structure.

There are 3 parts that follow each other seamlessly:

  1. Purposee core. It is composed of glycosaminoglycans. This is a very important substance that enables the transfer of water resource. The kernel may increase in two times when absorbs water. It happens when have on the spine strain. Otherwise, water is allocated. This allows the cushioning disc between the vertebrae.
  2. Fibrous ring. It is at once the core includes about 25 plates in a ring shape, and between them is located the collagen fibers. This ring connects with the vertebrae does not allow them to move, and also forms protection for the nucleus pulposus.
  3. Zamechatelnye records. With their help, covered with the vertebra above and below, as there is a layer of hyaline cartilage. Eat the vertebrae of oxygen through the vessels, are responsible for what these plates are.
The muscular system of the spine

Near the spine, are the muscles that form a frame. They are attached to the vertebrae, allowing them to move. There are superficial and deep back muscles.

There are superficial muscles:

  • diamond-shaped muscle;
  • trapezius muscle;
  • top gear muscle;
  • rear lower serratus;
  • the widest muscle.

When the back is straightened, it also involved the deep muscles. When a person, for example, bends, turns, working your abdominal muscles.

Function of the spine

The human spine is a very important device in the body. It performs the following functions:

  • reference (helps a person to be a single system);
  • protective (the spinal cord is not injured, he is protected);
  • depreciation (when a man makes sharp movements, is softening);
  • motor (a person can move parts of the body and itself to move around).

So, the spine plays a very important role in a person’s life, so you should protect it in a healthy condition.

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