Spina bifida is a pretty severe anomaly which is a congenital pathology. In this disease not occurs closure of the vertebrae, but on the contrary, cracks are formed. Because of this, some parts of the spinal cord and its membranes are released under the skin.
This is a common anomaly appears in the lower part of the spine, but can also occur in other places. This disease is characterized as severe, the severity of which is based on how much the cells of the nervous tissue has lost its protection.
How heavy is a congenital spina bifida?
Currently, congenital spina bifida are identified in the embryonic period of time that provides the opportunity to implement preventive actions prior to the birth of the child. Usually, if a baby has separation of the spine, it is almost always recommended to stop pregnancy as spina bifida in newborns seen as a pretty major flaw. If parents decide to keep the baby, then after the appearance of a child into the world, doctors prescribe a course of treatment to prevent the formation of serious disability.
Adults with spinal hernia are disabled and are considered to be incapable, because this disease is not able to perform leg movements, and also causes incontinence. In such a situation, the patient simply can not live without outside help.
Causes of congenital cerebrospinal hernia
The cause of this disease is still not exactly known. The embryo at the time of formation can be constrained by multiple factors. To the emergence of spinal hernia in the fetus, presumably, results in the deficiency of various vitamins in the mother’s body.
However, spina bifida is characterized as a congenital anomaly, but by nature it is not regarded as genetic. But in that case, if there was a conceiving a baby with such disease, when pregnancy risk is quite large.
In order to prevent the conception of a subsequent child with this type of pathology before pregnancy, a woman must undergo an advance training that involves the use of all necessary minerals and vitamins.
In adults, this pathology is due to:
- falling from height;
- lifting heavy cargo;
- due to strikes;
- degenerative disc disease;
- any injuries to the spinal unit;
- classes challenging sport;
- infections of the spinal cord;
- the lack of movements.
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The types of the disease
Hernia hidden. She usually has a mild form and the disorder of the structure of only one vertebra. Many people that have this hernia, the symptoms do not appear, only the area of the damaged part of the spinal division has a small notch.
Hernia. In this type there is considerable damage to the bones. The hernia is externally visible expression, manifested in the bulging, contained in it the spinal cord. Often the roots and trunks of the nerves are not affected and continue normal working. In the most difficult situations in the hernial SAC may be pinching the spinal cord together with the membranes of the spine and nerve trunks. In this situation, the anomaly is not without severe disorders of motor function, motor activity and receptivity.
The symptoms of spina bifida
- The bulging texture of circular shape in the range of the spine, which leather-covered reddish or bluish hue.
- Abundant weakness in the muscles of the hands or feet, wounds or paralysis, the development of flexion contractures (energy of movement, the limbs tend to remain in curved position).
- Disorder all types of receptivity.
- The reduction reactions of the limbs close to utter decay.
- Decrease in functioning of the muscles of the hands and feet.
- The emergence of various problems in the human body that occur when the trophic disorders (dry skin, cooling of the limbs, sores that do not heal).
- The conversion features of the pelvis (slowness or involuntary discharge of stool or urine).
- Defect feet (wrong as hips and feet).
- Dropsy of the brain, due to excessive receipt of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain.
- Epileptic seizures, damage to the optic apparatus and the delay of the psyche.
It is important to know: the most common symptoms of this disease are not visible, which can lead to the chronic form. In the end, the therapy will be quite difficult (doctors can resort to surgery), as well as relapse. Therefore, when the appearances is any indication, you should immediately consult a specialist.
- Examination of patients to detect spina bifida. It is usually produced using a so-called “test’s symptom”. This process, when the establishment of the hernia is necessary to lift the lower limb up or alternative (which reduces pain) to lift the lower extremities in the sitting position. Mostly effective this survey is to identify hernias in the lumbar Department.
- Radiological examination of human (x-ray). This method is ineffective, but occasionally the specialists it is used in order to eliminate the presence of other pain syndromes (tumors, fractures). If the examination by x-rays increases the risk of the presence of a person has a hernia, then (to specify) other methods may be used to confirm the diagnosis definitively.
- The most effective way of diagnosing this disease is MRI. This method is fairly accurate, it can detect not only a hernia, but also to determine its exact location, stage of the lesion discs, nerves and tissues. In that case, if a person has a suspicion that should be intervention by surgery, magnetic resonance therapy should certainly be assigned.
- Computerized axial tomography (CAT). This method is less effective than MRI, but is used to diagnose quite often. It is a computer reads x-rays, resulting in an image. It should be noted that this method of diagnosis does not give any accurate diagnosis. Using it, you can only look at the size and shape of the channels of the spine, soft tissues and nerve endings.
- A myelogram. Is characterized by the introduction into the canal of the spine of a contrast agent, and later conducted an x-ray.
MRI of the spine
Spina bifida – treatment
Spina bifida in children or adults is a serious illness, therefore, you cannot use home-made treatments, including a trip to the baths, drink extracts on alcohol, hot compresses, and, of course, hot baths with medicinal plants. All of the above can easily worsen the health of the patient and will result in consequences.
Treatment for spina bifida is performed solely by a radical method – removal of anomalies. Radical method of treatment is needed in order to prevent the formation of pathology. To achieve this, the target destination is used neurotropic and nootropics, which, in turn, lead to normal functioning of the nervous tissues. Of course, you need to take various vitamins (groups A, b, C, E), they contribute to the strengthening of exchange processes in parts of the spinal cord affected by the disease.
Also, experts suggest physical therapy spina bifida (magnet, laser) will be able to resume motility. Through the healing of physical culture in places of damage of resumed communication between the spinal cord and muscles. The use of diet leads to normal functioning of the intestinal tract. Certainly introduced into the diet as much as possible of roughage, as a rule, cereals and vegetables.
Removal of spinal hernia in newborns surgically
In that case, if the kid discovered congenital spinal hernia, the best treatment will be surgery. It is prescribed in a certain period of time, is best done in the first 7-8 days after birth into the light. The essence of surgery – excision of the hernia SAC and closure of the bone defect of the spinal Department.
Surgical intervention may be delayed, but only in the situation when the protrusion of the membranes of small volume, and in the absence of motor, receptive ailments and pelvic disorders in surviving skin. Early surgery spina bifida in newborns may lead to disorder in the field of neurology, to lesions of the spinal cord during surgery.
Additional methods of surgical treatment:
- Bypass surgery helps to reduce pressure of hydrocephalus on the brain of the baby, and removal of excessive liquid.
- The elimination of pathologies in the structure of the spine.
- Orthopaedic treatment.
- The resumption of the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract and bladder.
The immediate cause of spina bifida is a malformation when disturbed in the development process and circuit of the vertebral arches, normally forming the rear wall of the spinal canal and the covering of the spinal cord. Through a bony defect under the influence of the increased pressure of the cerebrospinal fluid bulges the spinal cord with roots, and shells, forming a hernia.