Meningioma of the spine is the tumor that is localized in the spinal cord membrane – fibrous tissue. In most cases the tumor is benign and only 10% of patients it is malignant. Meningioma most commonly occurs in people 40 to 60 years. But still there are cases when the tumor is diagnosed in children.
What is a meningioma? This tumor is a dense pathological node oblong shape. Its size is usually not more than 15 cm.
A benign tumor develops very slowly, and during malignant growth of education with the rapid manifestation of severe neurological symptoms. Meningioma of the spine may be single or multiple.
The complexity of this disease is that the tumor is growing inside, thus it puts pressure on the spinal cord, causing the manifestation of severe conditions.
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Meningioma, especially benign for a long time does not show any symptoms. The symptoms appear when the tumor grew to such dimensions that allow it to put pressure on the spinal cord or on the nerve roots. The symptoms depend on the localization of the tumor.
Stages and symptoms:
- Radicular stage is characterized by appearance of pain in the place where the compression of the nerve root. The character of the pain can be different – sometimes clenching, sometimes surrounding. This stage lasts for 3 months.
- The second step is the compression half of the spinal cord diameter. Symptoms of this condition is the decrease of sensitivity on the part where is localized a meningioma. As a rule, disturbed vibration, tactile sensitivity. But on the other hand, will manifest pain.
- Paraplegics stage is a condition in which affected the whole diameter. Dependent on the localization of the tumor can disrupt the function of various organs. When the lower paraparesis impaired functioning of the pelvic organs (involuntary urination, defecation, male impotence).
Very often a meningioma of the spine is characterized syndrome brown-sekara. It is a condition in which there is loss of sensation (muscular, articular, temperature), and as development may occur Central paralysis. All depends on the location. This files most often occurs meningioma of the cervical and thoracic spine.
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The main symptoms are:
- pain in the back;
- the feeling of stiffness in the movements;
- the development may also be violations of motor coordination;
- violation of visual function;
- behavioral modifications.
Scientists have proved that in most cases, a meningioma of the spine occurs because of a genetic predisposition. Studies have shown that there is a direct relationship between the manifestation of tumors and disruption in chromosome 22.
According to statistics, the disease affects more women. This may be due to regular disruptions in hormonal levels that women very often happen. This is the reason of rapid growth of meningiomas in pregnant women.
As well as the formation of the tumor is exposed to:
- people on the body which long time was affected by the poisons;
- people who have suffered a spinal injury, traumatic brain injury;
- people who were subjected to radiation.
Share 3 main types of spinal meningiomas: benign, atypical and malignant tumor.
A benign tumor is characterized by slow growth, and thus it does not affects the tissues that are located nearby. This meningioma respond well to treatment has a favorable forecasts and after treatment, relapses don’t happen.
Atypical tumor is a tumor characterized by rapid growth and an aggressive course. This type of neoplasm is rare and 4.7% of cases. Aggression within is due to the high likelihood of recurrence and difficulty in treatment.
A malignant tumor is a disease in which education is growing very fast, and while developing, captures new tissue nearby. After surgical removal, the recurrence occurs in the majority of cases.
The first methods of examination are physical examination by a physician, conducted neurological tests. In this case, the efficiency of instrumental methods of diagnosis are MRI and CT. And in the case of a malignant need for biopsy with histological examination of biological material.
If a meningioma is diagnosed by accident at the preclinical stage, the patient may need 1 every 6 months to undergo an MRI as this will help to control the condition.
To determine the tactics of treatment, the doctor should detail the following aspects: the size of the tumor, the nature of the tumor, localization of lesions and how widespread the tumor and the involved surrounding tissue in the pathological process.
The only treatment is surgery, as the only way to remove the tumor. In doing so, a radical resection of both the tumor and the Dura of the spinal cord, which is located near the site. And sometimes you want to remove more bone.
You need plastic, which is sometimes used of soft tissues or artificial implants. Also want to apply fixation of the lumbar spine and laminectomy.
If diagnosed with a meningioma of the cervical spine is carried out before surgery and vascular embolization, to make it easier to remove it and slightly reduce.
There is another non-invasive technique – stereotactic surgery. The operation is performed using CyberKnife or gamania. This technique is remote irradiation of the tumor. CyberKnife works by means of x-rays, and hamano emits ionizing radiation. But stereotactic procedure is used only in the case if the classical surgical technique should not be used for any reason. This method of surgery is less traumatic for soft tissues and spine and lasts a lot less than radical removal of the tumor.
If it is diagnosed that the meningioma is malignant, then after surgery radiation therapy. It is also necessary to carry out this therapy if you cannot remove all involved in the pathological process of tissue as it is anatomically important structures. In each case, differences in dosage and duration of radiation therapy. And assigns it to the attending physician.
Projections of the disease depend on many factors. For example, tumor localization, multiplicity and histological analysis. According to statistics, after the complete resection of benign tumors only 3% of patients relapse occurs.
In malignant tumors the prognosis is unfavorable, as in 78% of patients after radical treatment of the recurrence manifests itself in the near future.