When osteoarthritis occurs the cartilage destruction. The disease is chronic, over time leads to changes in the degenerative type, the attached muscle tissues, ligaments, bone mating surfaces. The disease process often affects the knee, hip and hand joints.
According to statistics, deforming arthrosis of the knee joint is observed in 40-50% of cases. Otherwise, this disease is called gonarthrosis. To prevent irreversible changes, it is necessary to treat the pathology as soon as the first symptoms.
Classification of gonarthrosis
Gonarthrosis can be primary (idiopathic) or secondary. Primary osteoarthritis can occur in the elderly, as a consequence of age-related changes of cartilage. Most often it affects women with excess body weight. In most cases, symptoms of lesions of knee joints in both legs – bilateral gonarthrosis. Symptoms of osteoarthritis begin to appear first on one knee, then found on another. As a complication of diseases of inflammatory character develops secondary osteoarthritis. Such a diagnosis can be made irrespective of the patient age. In most cases pathological process amazes the knee of one leg. Secondary pathology applies post-traumatic osteoarthritis that develops in the result of injury of the knee.
Depending on the localization can be diagnosed gonarthrosis of the right-hand or left-hand. Left-osteoarthritis can develop in the injury of the right leg. This is because unconsciously the severity of the body weight is transferred with the patient’s feet healthy, the load on the cartilage increases. The diagnosis of bilateral gonarthrosis is less common in secondary type of pathology.
The disease passes 3 stages of development:
- At the initial stage of the development of pronounced symptoms. Pain may occur after strenuous exercise on knee joints. May be a manifestation of minor swelling. The treatment started at this stage that can stop the pathological process.
- In the next stage of gonarthrosis symptoms become more pronounced, you hear a crunch when driving, there is a limitation of joint mobility caused by his moderate deformation. The disease at this stage it is incurable, but the process of deformation of the joint can be stopped.
- With 3 degrees of pathology of pain is present constantly, even at rest, there is an expressed limitation, significant deformity of the knee joint. Because of this change the gait of the patient. The condition is exacerbated if diagnosed bilateral gonarthrosis.
Inflammation of the synovial membrane, accompanied by accumulation in the cavity of the joint fluid (synovitis) may occur even in the early stages of gonarthrosis. Joint it increases in size. For gonarthrosis grade 3 synovitis is observed constantly, adding to the soreness of the joints and their deformation.
Diagnosis of gonarthrosis
Adequate treatment is impossible without a correct diagnosis.
To make a correct diagnosis used different research methods.
- The orthopedist examines the affected area, conducting linear measurements of the bones, determines the mobility of the affected joints at different angles.
- Also conducted laboratory tests of the blood, determined by the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). This figure may indicate the current inflammatory or pathological process.
- Determined by the level of fibrinogen concentration is increased when the current inflammatory processes.
- The main method of diagnosis of the affected joints – radiography. In the early stages of the disease when x-ray revealed minor changes. In the later stage there is narrowing of the joint space, destruction of cartilage, bone tissue.
This takes into account that the symptoms similar to osteoarthritis of the knee, can occur in many elderly persons, in the absence of pathological process. The diagnosis of gonarthrosis is, and if there are radiographic and clinical signs of disease. In addition to radiography can also be used ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging.
Drug treatment of osteoarthritis
Gonarthrosis of the knee joint of 1 degree or 2 degrees are treated conservatively. Treatment is aimed at pain relief and restore joint mobility. The disease requires a comprehensive approach.
If diagnosed gonarthrosis of the knee joint 2 degrees, pain present all the time. For quick pain relief drugs used analgesics.
- To stop the inflammation and restore the mobility of joints, treatment of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as Phenylbutazone, Ketoprofen, Diclofenac, celebrex, NIMULID, Piroxicam, Movalis.
- For the regeneration of damaged cartilage, slow down its destruction, drugs used-chondroprotectors, for example, Glucosamine, Chondroitin sulfate, symptoms.
- May additionally be undergoing treatment promotes the renewal of the synovial fluid. These funds require long-term therapy. Effective if revealed osteoarthritis of 1 degree or 2 degrees. Osteoarthritis of the knee at the stage of complete destruction of the cartilaginous tissue to treat a chondro is impractical.
- With frequent exacerbations of chronic osteoarthritis of the knee can be used injections of corticosteroids, hyaluronic acid directly into the joint. Hormonal drugs are effective if the joins osteoarthritis synovitis.
Gonarthrosis 2nd degree treated with oxygen therapy – the introduction into the joint cavity medical oxygen.
This method allows you to:
- to normalize metabolic processes in the affected joint;
- to remove swelling;
- to reduce the intensity of the pain;
- prolong the period of remission.
Carrying oxygen therapy effective in the early stage of development of pathology. May be alternative to hormone therapy. Treatment involves a course of 4 injections.
If diagnosed gonarthrosis of the knee joint 2 degrees, in addition to the drug therapy are assigned to physiotherapy.
Unilateral or bilateral gonarthrosis treated using different methods:
- magnetic therapy;
- of laser therapy;
- pulse therapy;
- microwave therapy;
- hydrogen sulfide or radon baths;
- of mud;
- local hypobaric hypoxic stimulation;
- warming applications;
- therapeutic physical training.
The most common treatment of the knee joint with the help of electrophoresis. Applied various drugs to eliminate the symptoms of gonarthrosis. Electrophoresis with Dimexid allows to reduce the intensity of joint pain.
To improve metabolic processes in the joints and speed up the recovery of applied sulfur, calcium, magnesium, zinc.
- Gonarthrosis 2nd degree can be treated effectively with the use of ultrasound therapy. In disorders of cardiac activity, this method is contraindicated, it is replaced with microwave therapy.
- Warming treatments contribute to the acceleration of exchange processes, which improves the regeneration of damaged tissues. To eliminate the symptoms of osteoarthritis allow compresses on the basis of ozokerite, paraffin.
- Typical symptoms of osteoarthritis – pain, inflammation swelling of the knee joints, can be eliminated by using magnetotherapy. Low-frequency magnetic field acts on the affected area by passing the magnetic properties. As a consequence, improves the mobility of joints, suspended their destruction.