25.06.2021

Symptoms and diagnosis of kidney disease

Pathological conditions of the urogenital system, and in particular of the kidneys affects the functional activity of the human body. It is through paired organ is excretion of toxic and poisonous substances that negatively affect the body. It is therefore very important to timely diagnosis of kidney disease, in order to retard the development process in its early stages.

Kidney is a paired organ, through its glomerular apparatus each second passes, the blood. Here is the process of cleansing the blood of excess ingredients and toxins. If a failure occurs in the filtration system, the toxic components get into the urine incomplete, some of them migrate into the bloodstream and spreads throughout the body, to all organs and systems.

Disease doubles on are among the ten most frequent pathologies of the man, according to many experts. The symptoms of each disease are very bright, and only getting worse with the simultaneous involvement of both kidneys. Regardless of age, sex, race, all the signs of a pathological process seen in all people equally.
Almost every person on Earth, at least once faced with the violations of the urogenital system. Therefore, the entire clinical picture of the pathological process has been studied very thoroughly.

Kidney diseases and their symptoms

Diseases pair on it is very common and the spectrum of the clinical symptoms are very diverse. All the signs depend on the cause, which led to the development of the pathological process. Next will be described in more detail the symptoms of the most common kidney disease.

These include:

  • pyelonephritis;
  • kidney stones;
  • glomerulonephritis;
  • oncological pathology;
  • polycystic kidney disease;
  • hydronephrosis;
  • kidney failure;
  • nephroptosis.

Symptoms of kidney disease may differ in men and women

Pyelonephritis

Pyelonephritis is the changes of inflammatory nature in the Cup the renal pelvis region of one or both kidneys. The development of the pathological process due to the influence of infection and occurs in all age groups. Also perhaps the development of gestational pyelonephritis in pregnant women.

This diagnosis is characterized by the development of such symptoms:

  • change the color of urine;
  • soreness;
  • the change in temperature of the body.

Urine changes color, it becomes unclear, there are purulent on and a small amount of sediment in the form of flakes. In the region of the affected organ feels pain, because this process associated with stretching of the renal capsule. By the intensity of pain is moderate and lasts throughout the day, by changing the position of the body the pain is not reduced. The temperature of the body increases, while mobilizing all the signs of intoxication, namely: fatigue, weakness, a state of complete indifference, indifference, reduced craving for food.

Urolithiasis

Urolithiasis is characterized by formation of stones in the kidney or in any part of the urinary tract, but most often in the bladder. To the development of the disease such factors: taking certain groups of drugs, feeding disorders, lack of sleep, congenital malformations of the urogenital system, obstruction of the lumen of the urethra.

The promotion of stone in the ureter, can lead to severe pain

Symptoms of kidney stones include:

  • soreness;
  • the increase in temperature of the body;
  • change in color of urine;
  • voiding;
  • retching.

Painful sensations are acute, and sometimes intolerable. The pain develops due to the narrowing or partial blockage of the urethra. Blockage occurs because of the promotion of the urethra stones of small size. Along with a fever with weakness of the whole body, fatigue and malaise. Urine turns a red hue due to impurities in it bleeding.

Trips to the bathroom become frequent and painful due to voiding. Attacks of pain can lead to the development of retching, followed by copious vomiting without relief.

Glomerulonephritis

Glomerulonephritis refers to a category of inflammatory diseases of the kidneys, the process of glomerular lesions involves the camera body. This pathology has several morphological types. The main reason that leads to the development of the disease, considered an autoimmune reaction in the body, as well as the formation of cell structures that begin to kill its own tissues pair on.

Glomerulonephritis has the following characteristics:

  • pain pulling character;
  • the change in the blood pressure;
  • swelling of the skin;
  • the accumulation of fluid in the body;
  • changes in the urine.

Painful sensations are pulling in nature, localized in the lumbar region, on the side of the affected organ or both at once. The man who previously had no health problems, start jumping blood pressure, often upwards. It brings him some discomfort, he becomes lethargic, had headaches, and the desire to lie down.

Glomerulonephritis there are severe swelling of the skin of the face

Begin to form the swelling, they have a clear localization, namely, the face and eyelids. Frequently, the peak swelling occurred in the morning. If the disease is not treated, over time, in the natural cavities of the human body (pleura, pericardium), begins to accumulate fluid. When conducting clinical analysis of urine, it detects the elements, which normally do not exist. Namely, cylinders, protein, leukocytes. The accumulation of these structures in the urine indicates the development of the inflammatory process.

Cancer pathology

Cancer lesions tend to affect all organs and systems of the body, and the buds are no exception. The disease can be both malignant and benign. Unfortunately, the first signs of this process can be seen only in the tumours from growing to impressive sizes. Small tumor can be detected only through very careful examination.

The main symptoms of cancer include:

  • fatigue and drowsiness;
  • weight loss;
  • pain in the lumbar region;
  • violation of the process of urination;
  • the state of General malaise.

The presence of cancer in the human body leads to loss of vital forces, the patient describes this as the phrase “the battery”. In addition, increased secretion of sweat, especially at night. Fast weight loss for a short period of time without food restrictions. Painful sensations are pulling in nature and are located in the lumbar region. Can be on the part of the affected organ, or both.

Polycystic kidney disease refers to a category of congenital anomalies

During urination, a person may experience some discomfort that can be associated with the promotion of the urethra a small blood clot.

Polycystic kidney disease

Polycystic kidney disease or polycystic disease is a disease that is congenital in nature, the hallmark of which consider the degeneration of healthy tissue of the body in multiple empty structures or cysts. The first symptoms can be observed even at a small age.

Unlike children, adult polycystic disease develops gradually and has the following characteristic features:

  • pain in the lumbar region;
  • swelling of tissues;
  • General fatigue of the body;
  • changes in the clinical analysis of urine.

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Painful sensations have nouse-drawing character, and are localized in the region of the lumbar or abdominal cavity. In the initial stages of the pathological process, pain is felt on only one side, but with the progression of the disease the pain can be felt on both sides. During the day the patient begins to show signs of kidney failure, namely: dryness of the oral mucosa, tissue edema, malaise and increased blood pressure.

The person experiences severe fatigue, craving for food is reduced, and the amount of energy moves toward zero. From the clinical analysis of urine the following changes: the presence in urine of red blood cells, protein and cylinders. Upon detection of leukocytes, and bacterial agents can be judged on the accession of secondary infection.

Hydronephrosis

Hydronephrosis is a disease that is characterized by expansion of the cups and pelvis pair on. This disease can not boast of a bright clinical picture, and for a long time asymptomatic.

Hydronephrosis long time can be asymptomatic and people may not be aware of the disease

In women, hydronephrosis is easier to diagnose, as its first signs appear after the previous infectious process or injuries of the internal organs of the urogenital system. In the lumbar region there is tenderness, which may have different intensity and nature, associated with nausea, followed by vomiting. In addition, the blood pressure is rapidly creeping up, and in the urine is detected admixture of blood.

Renal failure

Syndrome renal failure develops in the presence of other pathologies pair on. The main feature of this disease is the marked reduction in the functional activity of the kidneys. As a result, disturbed fluid and electrolyte balance, and as a result, most of the toxins linger in the body. It is a violation of the process of urination, it can be noted the increase in the volume of urine in the morning.

The main manifestation of kidney failure include:

  • swelling of the skin on the face and lower extremities;
  • disturbance of sensation in the feet;
  • the decrease in hemoglobin level;
  • sensation of heat and burning sensation on the skin;
  • increase in blood pressure;
  • muscle weakness.

In addition, there are violations of the gastrointestinal tract: flatulence, indigestion, constipation.

Nephroptosis

Nephroptosis – the omission, or migration of the buds in the left or right side. The omission of the body is often observed in the mothers or lovers of diets. The kidney is lowered due to the stretching of muscles and ligaments, because they are necessary to maintain it. Painful, aching, pulling and cutting character in the lumbar region is the first symptom of nephroptosis. The pain tends to worsen during physical exertion.

In addition, the victim experiences nausea, followed by vomiting and increased body temperature. Possible disorders in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract: stomach upset or constipation. The patient decreased appetite, there is emotional instability, and sleep disturbances. In this pathology of possible twisting of the ureter, and as a result, urine stagnates, that may develop severe complications.

Most often nephroptosis occurs in pregnant women

Diagnostic measures

For the correct diagnosis and determine violations of renal Department costs to undergo a series of diagnostic procedures that will help to consider in more detail the clinical picture of the disease. There are the following tests and procedures.

Clinical analysis of blood

Clinical analysis of blood will determine the presence of inflammation in the body. The increase in the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and white blood cells indicates this deviation.

Urinalysis

If you suspect kidney disease, it is mandatory to conduct a urinalysis. It is necessary to determine the presence of protein (glomerulonephritis), and specific gravity of urine, because the low density is observed in renal failure.

With a microscope to determine the presence of elevated leukocytes (pyelonephritis) and an increase in the number of red blood cells (glomerulonephritis). If there is inflammation of the bacterial nature noted the presence of bacteria in the urine, and if detected kidney stones in urine sediment appears.

Ultrasound diagnosis

Ultrasound examination of the kidneys belongs to the category of instrumental methods of diagnostics and allows to identify minor changes of form and arrangement of the pair of the body that are not the norm. Can be used to identify kidney stones and tumor formation.

Immunological analysis of blood

Immunological analysis of blood allows to determine the presence of C-reactive protein (CRP), and the increase in the titer of antibodies against the glomerular kidneys. CRP is a specific protein that is determined solely glomerulonephritis.

Antegrade radiography of the kidneys

Antegrade radiography of the kidneys is performed using a contrast agent that is injected into the blood, and then together with the plasma undergoes a process of filtration in the renal glomeruli, and then leaves the body with urine. Such manipulation will help to determine how the flow of urine, whether in his way of obstacles and if so, where they are located.
Timely diagnosis will help to define the disease at its earliest stages

Computed tomography

Computed tomography refers to modern radiological methods of examination of the human body. This manipulation allows one to determine even small changes in kidney structure and build a layered picture. With all of the above methods of diagnosis, it is possible to determine all complications that are caused by diseases of the genitourinary system.

Symptoms of kidney disease is very diverse and very similar to each other, which sometimes promotes the wrong diagnosis. But, using modern and versatile diagnostic methods, it is possible to accurately make a diagnosis and to do it in the shortest possible time.

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