The formation of stones in the gallbladder – the most common cause of the disease, “cholecystitis”, the symptoms of inflammation it is a severe paroxysmal pain in the abdomen and in the abdomen, fever, itching, diarrhea (diarrhea), nausea and vomiting.
Cholelithiasis can lead to inflammation and serious complications. Requires treatment in a hospital and often recommended the removal of the gallbladder (a procedure called cholecystectomy).
The acute form of inflammation of the gallbladder in most cases, caused by the presence of stones in this organ. A patient who is showing signs of cholecystitis, should be treated in a hospital with anaesthetic, antibiotics administered intravenously. Inflammation may give way under the influence of the use of drugs, but most often surgery is performed to remove the gallbladder, ie, cholecystectomy to prevent a recurrence of the inflammation in the future.
Bile is a substance, which, in turn, contains various substances, such as bile pigments, salts, cholesterol and lecithin. The bile excreted from the liver with the help of tiny tubules, called ducts. They joined into larger tubules and create bile duct so the bile comes from the liver.
He gallbladder is located under the liver in the right upper abdomen. This kind of “pockets” for the bile duct, where the supply of bile. Gallbladder shrinks when we eat, and because of this the bile secreted in the duct and empties into the duodenum.
Attack of cholecystitis is common reason for patients to the hospital. Occurs more frequently in women than in men.
The symptoms of the disease
Symptoms of cholecystitis develop quickly, these include:
- abdominal pain and abdominal cavity;
- fever (high temperature);
- diarrhea (diarrhea);
- the chair is yellow;
- General serious condition of the patient.
The first symptom is pain, localized in the upper abdomen on the right. Most strongly felt under the ribs, can reach to the back and right hand. The pain tends to increase when the patient tries to breathe deeply the air. During a touch of the stomach the patient feels the pain is often accompanied by heartburn, nausea, vomiting and high temperature.
Most cases of acute cholecystitis due to the occurrence of stones in the bile ducts. Only in 10% of cases this condition is not associated with gallstone disease and is the result of other serious diseases of the body.
If not treated, the recurrence of acute cholecystitis, stones in the gall bladder in some patients can lead to fibrosis, thickening and deformation of the wall of the bile that is the chronic form.
In this case there are hopelessly severe pain in the abdomen, but at any moment could cause aggravation of the disease with typical symptoms of cholecystitis. Ultrasound also detected by the deformation of the gallbladder and thickened wall, and in its “interior” is visible thick bile and fat.
Chronic cholecystitis manifests as an acute inflammation of the gallbladder, but signs of cholecystitis in this case are slightly different, as there is no increase in body temperature. For the treatment of this condition are applied the surgical procedure of removing the gallbladder.
In the gallbladder are formed stones (calculi), when substances in the bile, are deposited, forming solid clusters. These formations typically contain clumps of cholesterol that has undergone a curing process. Sometimes stones are formed in the process of deposition of bile pigments or calcium deposits. The number of stones varies – they may be few, and may be too much. It happens that there is one very big stone. Gallstone blessedeaster most often in adults older children stones are formed rarely.
Many people suffering from gallstones do not have symptoms of the disease, and the existence of stones is found incidentally during abdominal ultrasound.
Gall stones in the bladder, as a rule, remain in this body and not move with the bile. They do not cause any obstacles in the move of bile. However, in some people, the stones shifted into the gastric lumen, causing discomfort and causing acute or chronic inflammation of the gallbladder.
Diagnosis of the disease
Diagnosis of cholecystitis is performed using abdominal ultrasound. It allows you to determine acute or chronic inflammation of the gallbladder. In the study, usually it is possible to visualize stones and to evaluate the appearance of the gallbladder wall to determine whether they are inflamed, which is typical for this disease. The gallbladder in the course of acute inflammation are often increased in size.
In laboratory tests biochemical analysis of blood reveals increased white blood cells responsible for protecting the body from infection, and elevated levels of liver enzymes AST, ALT and alkaline phosphatase.
Treatment for inflammation
If seizure occurs biliary colic, the patient must call an ambulance. Worth it for a few hours to abstain from food only drink liquids. After the disappearance of pain should be taken diastolic drugs in tablets. Between the attacks of biliary colic, it is important a strict diet and avoiding alcohol. It is also worth to take drugs, stimulating the production and removal of bile, – they are available in pharmacies without a prescription. These drugs are struggling with stagnation of bile, cleanse the bile ducts.
Symptomatic treatment of gallstone disease is fraught with many problems, in particular, severe attacks of colic, so the disease should be treated surgically.
The treatment of chronic and acute inflammation of the gallbladder based on a strict diet.
Fluids and pain medication the patient receives intravenously through a drip. Diet often causes a relief of symptoms. If there is a suspicion of infection of the gall bladder the bacteria to the treatment with application of antibiotics that are also administered intravenously.
Surgical treatment involves the removal of the gall bladder, is recommended in any case of acute inflammation of this organ. The operation is carried out mainly by laparoscopy. This procedure requires several small incisions on the skin, after which there are only small scars. The operation is carried out with instruments which are inserted into the abdominal cavity through small incisions. One of the tools is a camera that shows the “interior” of the abdominal cavity. Other tools used to remove gallbladder. Laparoscopy allows to reduce the recovery period of the patient and gives better results than traditional surgery.
In some people there is a need for surgery the classic method, i.e. by performing an incision of the membranes of the stomach.
If treatment is not taken timely, it can lead to complications such as bacterial inflammation of the gall bladder, empyema of the gall bladder or even the appearance of gangrene. These situations are unacceptable because they can lead to blood poisoning, ie the development of sepsis, are dangerous to human life.
Other complications: perforation (perforation) of the gallbladder, formation of a fistula, i.e., the channel that connects the bladder with the intestines, through which can penetrate the stones and result in the overlap of the lumen of the intestine and obstruction.